Monday, July 20, 1829

Morning Journal

Location: London, Middlesex

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Morning Journal (Newspaper) - July 20, 1829, London, Middlesex 9 BEISG A CONTTHUATION OF THE NEW TIMES. No. 9676. LONDON, MONDAY, JULY 20, 1829. Price 7d. CONTRACT FOB SLATERS* WORK. OFFICE OF ORDNANCE, Loudon, July 10,1839. PERSONS who may be willing to Contract for the performance of the SLATERS' WORK required by the Ho. nourabfe the Board of Ordnance, in London, comprehending all the'] Ordnance Buildings, Offices, and Barracks, at Pall-mall, and within-five miles or tbnt place, for a period of Tbree Years, determinable on either Party giving Three Months' Notice, at any time after tlie end of the first year, will send in Sealed Tenders on or before TUESDAY, tlie 89th of July. 1829, addressed to f The Secretary to the Board of Ordnance, Pall-mall," and endorsed " Tender for Slaters' Work." Printed Schedules containing the Conditions of Contract,- ana n List of the Articles or Work that may be required, may be had on application at the Royal engineer's Office, No. ?7, St. James's-street, where every information regarding the Contract may be obtained. By order of the Board, K. BYHAM, Secretary. BOOKS PUBLISHED THE QUARTERLY REVIEW is Published THIS DAY. DAILY GOVERNESS, ably_c�nW ster-row; catalogues also ut the Mart, where the Wines may be tatted at the lime of Sale. SCHOOL for the INDIGENT BLIND, St. George's-fields, Surrey. His.Grace the ARCHBISHOP of CANTERBURY, President. . \ SAOIUEL BOSANQUET, Esq., Treasurer. * TlVCommiftee give notice to the severalCandidates for admission ma their Friends that a SPECIAL GENEHAli JIEETI^G of tie MEMBERS of the" CORPORATION wifrbe hoTden at the City of Lonihm Tavern, Biahopsgate-street, o� THURSDAY, tlie 6th day of August, 1829, for the ELECTION of SIX MALE and FOUR FEMALE PUPILS. The Ballot will commence at Eleven o'clock, and close at Tlirve precisely. A Polling Paper das been sent to each Member of the Corporation whoie address is known, and all Members who have not given their address, or who pay their Subscriptions at Bankers, way receive them on application to the Secretary, or to the Superintendent at the School. Subscriptions, entitling the party to Ten Votes for each Aunnr.' Guinea, or Tea Guineas as a Member for Life, will be received by the Treasurer, Samuel Bo^anquet, Esq., No. 73, Lombard street; also by the Secretary, Mr-Charles Dodd, No. Z>, Billiter-sireet, Leadeuhall-street ; Mr. Robert Sharp, Superintendent, at the Scluml ; and by the Collectors, Mr. Win. Davis, No. 17, Canterbury-place, Lambeth, ami Mr. Ruddock, at Brighton. The Gentlemen of the Committee are requested to attend at the City of London Tavern on the day of Election by Half-past Ten o'Clack to make the necessary arrangements. CHARLES DODD, Secretary. NOTICE to GUN-MAKERS and OTHERS.-Whereas it ha** been represented to the MASTER, WARDENS, and ASSISTANTS of the COMPANY of GUN-MAKERS of the City ol London that many Gun and Pistol Barrels have lately been br ughi tn tue Company's Proof House in an improper state, for the purpose of being proved, and have been rejected because they were liable to he reduced after Proof, and serious injuries might in such cases have arisen from the bursting' of tlie same : The said Master, Wardens, and Court cf Assistants do hereby give Notice, that, in order (o prevent such Mischief, the Proof Master has received Directions not to prove any single Ouu or Pistol Barrel' nnless they have the Breech or Plug completely fitted to them, and iu no case to prove any Barrel with a Notch Plug, or any Ping or Breech, as a Substitute for the one intended for such Gun or Pistol when finished, nor any Barrel which is not as required by the Statute, " proper or applicable for the making or manufacturing of Small Arms." And the said Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants do hereby furthergive Notice, that all Double and other Barrels intended to he put tngetuer by Ribbing must be brought to the Proof House in " proper and applicable state" as aforesaid, by being: prepared for juintiLip, (,0 as to prevent the possibility of reducing them after they Iwtve been preyed. S .cried by order of the Court, JOHN HOLMES, Clerk. Cuainakers' Proof House, Church-lane, Whitechapel, July 9, 1829. ANTI-CORROSIVE LITHIC PAINT, recommended for Painting Stucco Fronts that are thoroughly dry, as well as for Painting rough out-door Wood or Iron Work, Agricultural Implements, Ac. It is decidedly cheaper than most oil colours, is more durable, and may be used by any common workman. Manufactured by FRANCIS WHITE and FRANCIS BROTHERS (Patentees of Homelin'a Mastic), Nine Elms, Vauxhall. BRUSSELS CARPETS.-" OLD PATTERNS."- FIFTEEN THOUSAND YARDS of the BEST five-fra BRUSSELS CARPETS ever manufactured (ail at 3s. 6d. a yard), last year's patterns. Also, Strong Russia Carpeting, yard ttide, Is. 2d. and Is. 4d. a yard, Venetians, yard wide................ la. fld. and Is. 9d. Ditto Best, all wool.................. 2a. Od. to 2s. 6d. Kidderminster, yard wide .......... Is. r,d. to 2s. 0*1. Ditto, Best Super fines..............2s. 6d. to 3s. Oil. Stair Carpets ......................()�*. 7d. to Is. Od. Ditto, Best, all wool................Is. 6d. to Is. 9d. Hearts Rugs, Crape Damasks, and Moreens, rich Carved Cornices and Foreign Silk Damasks, with the most splendid choice of SOLID ROSEWOOD CABINET FURNITURE in EUROPfc. GRAHAM and CO.. Manufacturers, 291, High Holborn. LEICESTER LADIES' AMI-SLAVERY SOCIETY. {From the Glasgow Courier.) There is a town called Leicester in England. In it there is a society called the "Leicester Ladies'Anti-Slavery Society, established in 1826, being a branch of the Birmingham Female Society lor the Relief of British r\egro Slaves." So says the circular which now lies hefore us, and which, from the subscription list, appears to consist of twenty-three mistresses and fourteen misses, the donations Irom whom amount to 121., and the subscriptions to 9(. lis., for "the relief of British negro slaves." We loibear to print the names of the ladies in question, many of whom have, no doubt, been duped into this philanthropic humbug by some of the itinerant canters of the day ; but the ne^t circular that comes into our hands will be dealt with by us with less ceremony. Leicester sends two members to parliament. One of these is Mr. OtwayCave, celebrated for being a Popery advocate, and lor his desire, legally expressed, to become in law botli parent aud nurse to all the black piccaninies which may be born in the West Indies after the year 1830. Otvray is the master free labourer for the Ladies'Society above alluded to ; and he must be a legislator of no ability, and few qualifications, indeed, if he does not find amongst the number mentioned some fit to be nurses, and to whom Mr. \V. Brown of this city will, we doubt not, send " nursing aprons," as soon as Mr. Cave, or the secretary, Mrs. Heyrick, may order them. With those remarks we proceed to inseit the circular alluded to as a pure specimen of the.taoi will tie humbug of rhe d**, and the most con-picuous, and cunning, and powerful puff which we ha\e for some time met with, on the part of these " grocers" who sell only " inuist East India sugar :"- 11 LEICESTER l.ADlEs' A N TI - SI. A v � H \ SOCIETY, !sTARTTSHEJ> lB'2'i, BEING A HUANCll UK TiJE MHV ESTATE and HOUSE AGENCY OFFICE, No. 03, BbUorisgate-street Witbin.-HENRY L. COOPER, in Eub-�nitiuigio bis friends the publication of liis Register the present month, ,s happy in being: able to state liiat, after having already uis-s�m a IBUc1' greater number of properties than oh any farmer uiii .iaDl1 frou> tlie Patr�i">=e his Agency Establishment has fi.unil Hat of h PUtillC'be '",sst'" the opportunity of laying before them a j | H�o�� and Estates, which few competitors can exceed, either run i c' lmPorlatice, or variety, and in situations -which comprise bl h "'C count'es in England, thereby rendering it almost iropossi-vii rt''at Part'es� either as buyers or sellers, at the reasonable aiue of the day, may both be accommodated. An engagement of Pwards of forty years in the upholstery department, on the same Pot, will, it is presumed, be a sufficient guarantee forhis integrity oil responsibility ; and when the locality, as to situation, is consi-"ered, being in the immediate vicinity of the Bank of England, Garra-. s, and the Auction Mart (the resort of the monied and landed ntere?t of the country), presents facilities peculiar to this establish-"lent for effectiug immediate and advantageous sales, nt the fair marketable valut- of the day, of whatever interests may be committed to Ins care.-N.B. Noblemen or Gentlemen desirous of taking a professional opinion wilt be waited on at their residences or estates__ ��, Bishopsgate-street Within. pOR INDIGESTION, HEARTBURN, &c-BUT- lir7,l,-fJER'� POOLING APERIENT POWDERS.-These Powders toi , ian Effervescing Draught extremely refreshing and grateful ne^lf Pi e' n,wellosatthesametimeamildand cooling niierient, oil y aual'ted to 'elievc Indigestion, Heartburn, and Nausea counteract Acidity in the Stomach. If frequently taken tbey Ed. eceia y obTiate tlie "ecessity of having recourse to Calomel, dehii?  i' and "tuer strong and nauseous medicines, which often witate the system without producing the desired effects. When cunTLa"?r tuo free a" ""'"'eeuce m the luxuries of the table, parti, uiarty after too much wine, the usual disagreeable effects arc predated-gol(i in Boxes nt 2s. 9d. and 10s. Gil., by Messrs. Butler, ,"yu>iats, Cheapside, corner of St. Paul's, London; Sackville-street aud Princes-street, Edinburgh; and the principal Medicine Doblii Venders; of whom may he bad Acidulated Cayenne Lozeagcs, for Habitual Sore Throats, Hoarseness, Relaxation of the Uvula, Sc. �l�o a refreshing Stimulus in Fatigue, Field Sport*, &c, and the An 'acid Quinine Lozenges for relieving Heartburn, Flatulence, Iniliges Uon, Nausea, I,0s9 of Appetite, Waterhrash, &c, and giving Tone to *e 8tomacb. In Boxes nt 9s. and 4�. 6d.-Observe the address of Messrs, Butler" on the Label. Vr.HAM i'emale SULlLl'i eo H the relief of biut isii negro slaves. " The following brief statement of the ibjects of this society is respectfully presented to tlie ladies of this county, with an earnest petition for their support in the name of Lho=c who cannot plead for themselves : - " 1st. To circulate extensively, through all classes, authentic information of the present wrongs anil sutieiings of our West Indian slaves ; to awaken a lively sense of (he guilt and danger of continuing to hold our unoffending fellow-creatures in a state of bondage, � which outrages every recognised principle of the British constitution and of the Christian religion.' " 2d. To extend present relief to the aged, sick, deranged, and maimed negroes, who are left by their masters to perish. Thirty pounds were sent last year by the Birmingham Society to the committee for the relief of the distressed negroes in Antigua. The following case, from among many, is added for the satisfaction of the public :-Henry Shauiinon, a poor cripple with one leg. and that so lame thai he cannot walk ; his owner left the island without making any provision for him. Allowed 2s. per week from the fund of the relief society. " 3d. To strive to promote the formation of ladies' associations in every part of his majesty's dominions to which their influence may extend, for the above purposes, or any other which may tend towards the grand object of emancipation. " 4th. To enforce, by example aud influence, the resolute rejection of West Indian sugar, and to substitute that which is the genuine jtoduce of free labour. " Mote-East India sugar is sold by many of the Leicester grocers-moist at Br/, and 9J., and loaf at Is. per lb. "><.B. East Indian sugar would be considerably cheaper than West if the duties on both were equal. The duty paid on coming into ibis country is-on West Indian sugar, 27/. per ton ; on Last Lidian sugar, 137/. pel ton. " There are also higher duties on ail East Indian articles than on West Indian. By six families using Last Indian instead of West Indian sugai one slave less is tequircd. " One of the most enlightened and devoted philanthropists of the present day, in a letter recently received, observes: - ' The good cause is, I am persuaded, gaining ground in many places where ladies' anti-slavery associations have been formed.' This shows that the great leaders in I he anti-slavery cause are far from regarding ladies' associations as an officious or unnecessary intermeddling. The delicate and sensitive nature of woman must dispose her to regard with peculiar hostility an institution which rudely teats asunder all the strongest ties of nature, and subjects the sex to the most degrading aud brutal coercion. Her leisure and her influence in the domestic department enable her to be a most efficient auxiliary in discountenancing the productions of slave labour, which appears the most certain means of extinguishing slavery, were it once to engage a zealous and extensive co-operation. But the leading principle of the association is that of duty, the obligation of stretching every effort to its utmost extent against a system of slavery, which is so fearful an offence to the God of mercy. " The smallest donations and subscriptions will be thankfully received for the treasurer by Mr. Hutchinson, chymist, Gallowtrec-gate ; and by Mr. Cockshaw, bookseller, High-street. " Ladies are particularly requested to shorv this circular to their friends." The reflecting reader will readily perceive from the " Note" that the whole of this humbug is carried on "to enforce, by example and influence, the resolute rejection of West India sugar, aud to substitute that which is the genuine produce of free labour ;" merely lo extend the sales of " many of the Leicester grocers," who sell Last India sugar, moist at 8J. and 9 s time tiun we dare state ; for it appears that, by manual power applied by winches, ,t passage I�etwecn Liverpool and .Manchester may be cffecled in about three hours, al about 6'/. a head. This will he the actual cost of the power, but the proprietors of 'he load will psobably charge U..ti/. or 4s , which will leave an immense revenue on thecarriage ol passengers only.- Muuchrtter Adi ertiitr. PROJECTED CHANGES at the INNER TEMPLE. A strong sensation has been excited during the last week amongst j the members of the Inner Temple by the promulgation of some new regulations for the admission of members to the bar. The feeling excited on the occasion has been most considerable amongst persons practising below the bar, including attorneys, against whom, particularly, the new regulations (as it is inferred from their obvious effect) are directed. The regulations adopted by the benchers of the inn, and said to have been made known by the under treasurer to the members, upon inquiry, are principally, that no one shall be admitted a member of the inn, for the purpose of being called to the bar without undergoing a previous examination as to his knowledge of the Greek and Latin classics, and of general literature; that before he is called to the bar he shall undergo a second exarninaton in the classics, in general literature, and in law, by appointed examiners ; that after he has received a certificate as to his proficiency from these examiners lie must undergo a final examination by the benchers, who, if they are satisfied in these, and other respects, as to the candidate's respectability, will call him to the bar. There are to be four examiners, of whom two are stated to be appointed- Mr. E. H. Alderson and Mr. Richards. The two other examiners have not yet been named officially, but it is rumoured that the son of Sir James Scarlett is at present in view as one of them. In the entry on the numbers no exception is made in favour of the present memberof the inn, and it is understood that the measure is to operate retrospectively towards all who expect to be called to the bar. So far these regulations are officially promulgated, but the details do not appear yet settled. Under the existing regulations of the inns of court no member who is, or has been a practising attorney, can be called to the bar, until his name has been taken off two years from the rolls of the courts of Westminster. The same regulation extends to articled clerks. MARCH OF MILITARY LAW. On the ttth November, 1826, two men, Sudds and Thorn son, privates m ttic 57th regiment of foot, were convicted at quarter sessions in SyJney, N'w South Wales, of having committed o felony in a shop in the town, and wcte sentenced to seven yeats' transportation for the offence. They were not re-deliveied (after sentence) to the military power, but were conducted by the sheriff of the colony, with other convicts, to the county gaol, iu Georce street, thete to icmain till it was convenient to cairy their sentence into execution. About a week after the said sentence Sudds cmplained of having the dropsy, and after being iu the pi isou hospital a few days was discharged as cured by order of Doctors Bowman and .MTntyie. In a day or two Sudds again complained of sickness, and the niider-gaoler visited him at nine o'clock at night, and conceiving him to be very ill placed him instanter in the prison-hospital once more. The next dav Dr. M'Intyre saw him there, but said lie was not ill, and accordingly directed him to be discharged, and to have the usual gaol irons pur on him again. The same day the shciff received a letter from the colonial secretary to deliver Sudds and Thomson to Brigade Major Gillman ; aud accordingly tlieir gaol irons were taken off, and they were delivered by the sheriff to the major, but not before the sheriff had told the major verbally it was an illecal act, and that his majesty himself could not do it. Major G. replied that " the governor could doit." The sheriff on this reply (though very unwillingly) gave up the men. The major then requested of the sheriff that he would re-reive them back: after they had been degraded in the barrack-ynrd. The sheriff said lie could not do so without a letter from the colonial secretary. Accordingly the major had to be al the trouble of procuring such letter. This pertinacity on the part of Sheriff Maeka-ih-ss doubtless gave huh offence to his excellency the general, and was probably alluded to bv his excellency in certain expressions in his subsequent letter to Mr. Mackaness, informing him of his dismissal from his office of hish sheriff. In the meantime the two soldiets were escorted to the barrack-yard, where the troops were all under parade. Their soldiers' clothes were stripped off; trowsers, shirt and all: and the men stood as naked as they were born, in presence of the garrison. Felons' dresses were then put on them. Thomson was soon fitted, he being in health, and active. But Sudds could not stand. His body and limbs were puffed with the dropsy. He had to be allowed to sit on the ground. The newly-made irons, manufactured after the pattern ol those placed by the rulers of slaves in South America and the Isle of France on runaways, were then placed upon tlie prisoners. The iron collar was about three inches deep ; " it entered into thei soul." Out of the collar, at right angles, projected two iron spikes about eight inches long. (There had been foui, but two of these were subsequently sawn off. to enable the men to lie down at night Slave-holders it seems suffer not their offending slaves to sleep). Sudds was so faint (the sun in New South Wales being at mid-day very hot in November, and it happened to be a clear day) that there was a deal of trouble and tumbling of him about to get his clothes on. At length they were got on. The shoes could not be pressed on his puffed feet without considerable force. The blacksmiths with their tools came to fasten the irons. Had drummers, with the knotted scourge, approached the troops would have felt only as usual-a grave but submissive resignation, tempered with a reverence for the ancient though cruel laws of their country. But the sight of blacksmiths and slave irons, and the puffed body of a sick fainting comrade, unattended by a surgeon, caused them to think of Spain, and Portugal, the rack, and the auto da jc. Some slight murmurs were heard. The smiths, however, " hammered the rivets The officers felt uneasy, but Providence over-ruled. The Rogue's march" presently struck^ up, and the two prisoners proceeded on their return to gaol. Thomson walked in his chains fearlessly, but Sudds staggered ; and but for the support of a constable on each side of him would have fallen. As it was the sheriff was obliged to direct the cavalcade to halt in George-street three several times. The same evening, as the sheriff passed through the passage in the gaol, he saw Sudds in his slave irons, stretched on the ground, the iron spikes projecting horizontally along the ground. Sudds, in a faint and tremulous voice, appealed to thelsheriff; he said he was very ill ; he entreated him for God's sake to take off the irons, or he should certainly die that night. The sheriff told him he was very sorry for him, but that he could do nothing for him out of the ordinary way, he Tjeing ironed in that peculiar manner by the special order of his excellency the general. Sudds, however, was admitted the next day into the prison-hospital, and his irons were taken off. He remained there three days, and was then removed to the general hospital; there he died the next day. Now, the question which ought to be solved by competent and constitutional authority is, would Sudds have died so soon, or would he have died at all, if the barrack-yard punishment above related had never been inflicted, and the illegal irons have never been put on him 1 The question raised as to the expediency of an illegal punishment is no proper question. A punishment which is to depend upon the will of one man cannot be expedient, in the eyes at least of an English court of justice. When the law is departed from evils unforseen occur. Had Sudds been taken to be punished at the halberts tlie regimental surgeon would have been in attendance, and might have prevented the sad catastrophe. But the punishment of the two men was neither civil nor military. It was in law nothing ; therefore no surgeon attended. When the governor gave orders for this extra-judicial punishment he should have been very careful to inquire into the health of the men. Dr. MTntyre's opinion that Sudds was Dot ill seems to us to have been a fatal error.-Sydney Monitor, Nov. 17, 0828. up. It is stated as an order, which will shortly be put in operation, that no solicitor, attorney, or articled clerk whatever, shall be admitted a member of the inn ; and that no person who has served in any one of those capacities shall be called to the bar, unless he have had his name taken from the rolls, or his articles of clerkship have been cancelled three years before lie .applies to be admitted I to thainu. * ... V- -i The effect of the new regulations announced, and of those proposed by an influential bencher, for adoption, in this, and in the other inns of court, is to shut out from the hopes of advancement in the profession all persons below recognised aristocratic rank. The striking and increasing success of one^minent barrister, who was formerly an attorney, is known to have-arrested the attention of several of his less distinguished and less fortunate brethren, as well as of those who may be eclipsed by his progress, and the number of the connexions of attorneys, or of those who, having been in practice below the bar as pleaders or attorneys, have been called to the bar, and obtained lucrative practice and rank, has for some time occasioned grave discussions amongst the leading counsel, who are the most active and influential of the benchers in the several inns of court. It has long been stated as a thing in contemplation to prevent any members of the inns from practising below the bar, or to adopt such regulations as would prevent the advance of those to the bar who had once elected to practice below it. In the one case attorneys or sons of attorneys "obtain of the bar whatever share of business their former known merits secured to them in their original capacity, or from their former clients and connections. With respect to the pleaders tlieir increase in number and practice has been long the subject of much jealousy. By the etiquette of the bar barristers are only allowed to take gold fees, but the pleaders, who are not subject to the etiquette of the bar, may take silver fees. The pleader may, for seven shillings, or for as much less as he chooses to take, draw the same plea which the barrister cannot draw for less than one guinea. Though the pleaders cany on a branch of the profession which by some eminent jurists is considered mischievous and odious, and must sooner or later give way to reform, yet they, nevertheless, grant cheaper law, cheaper justice, to the suitor. They give opinions at the same proportionately cheap rale, and the demand upon them has, iu this respect, greatly incteased. The opinion for which Sir James Scarlett would require five or ten guineas an eminent pleader, whuse learning might be as great, and whose opportunity for research might be much greater, would give tor one or two guineas. Hence the pleaders are favourites with the attorneys, who frequently give them their business when they are called to the bar. The proposed examination in Greek is universally treated as at least an outrageous, absurdity. Not a word of Greek is ever met with in the books, and, as an essential qualification for an English lawyer, a proficiency in the Sanscrit might as well be requited. Greek is seldom or never heard in the courts. Latin is hoard but sparingly, and of that, which is quoted from the law books, a large proportion must be admitted to be bad Latin. There is even a rule of law from the former frequency of its occurrence that bad Latin shall not vitiate any of the proceedings. Some of the best lawyers, and amongst them several now living, might be pointed out who have not always succeeded in making good English. An examination in law may, prima facie, appear to the public, teasonable and proper ; but those acquainted with the spirit and tendency of other rules adapted for the admission of members to the War, by which rules the object of this is to be interpieted, see it in a very different light. Formerly students read exercises and mooted cases in their halls, and at each inn a " lector" was ippointed, for their instruction, from among the most learned if the members. But after the experience of centuries these customs have been given up, as productive of no benefit, and as unfit to supercede the more interested, and more certain, examinations into the qualifications of the advocate by the client or his attorney. The ignorance or unfitness in other respects of an advo ate is liable to immediate exposute. In medicine the evils which may be inflicted by the ignorant practitioner are irremediable ; and for the advantage of every individual that there should be authorized examinations of the man to whom his health and life may be entrusted, often necessarily without his cognizance. The evils which may be inflicted by the ignorant legal practitioner are sufficiently grievous; but they are rarely, if ever, irremediable, and, if they were, it is asserted that regulations of the nature of those proposed would rather increase than diminish them. In the proposed examinations it is tlie memory which will be the most tried, not the qualihcation, discretion, ftora the lack of which by the advocate the greatest evil accrues to the client. But the longest life, if entirely directed to the study of modern law, would not suffice to secure the most able against rejection by a single examiner. His late majesty once observed that he never in his life met a lawyer who would venture to answer him a legal question without referring. Nor would the lawyer's opinions have been worth much, on points of importance, if they were made up without reference to the authorities. It is asserted with confidence that there is not one of the lynchers who could pass an examination by a man of moderate acquirements below the bar, if the latter wgre allowed full latitude as tn the department of the law he might select, and the framing of the questions he might choose to put. It is objected that examinations in part give any one bencher, or any one examiner, a colourable pretext for the rejection of any student against whom he might entertain a prejudice. The effect of the proposed legal examination would be to give an immense accession of patronage to the benchers or the leading members of the bar. Where difficulties are placed in the way of admission there must be conti�ual applications and solicitations from families of rank to those who have the power to remove the obstructions, and make easy the road to advancement. One great source of emolument in the profession is the fees on premiums received from pupils. The share of the legal benchers is in the greater number of instances determined by slight circumstances. Where a legal professor is known to have strong connections, or to be in favour with those who exercise an irresponsible power of admission, he will necessarily obtain a considerable preference over other professors who are not equally favoured. One of the proposed examiners has pupils. It has been stated as the declared intention of more than one of the members to call no one to the bar who is not possessed of a certain amount of property. One bencher has, it is understood, declared that he will call no one who is possessed of less than 400/. per annum, and it was stated during the last term to be in contemplation to require from each applicant for admission a schedule of his property, in order that the respectability ol the bar might be maintained. It is stated, however, at the Treasurer's office that no such order is at present entered on the books. It is, nevertheless, believed from the enquiries made of these recently called to the bar that an understanding equivalent to an oider exists amongst the benchers that some qunli ficatrons of this nature will be required. One member, the son of ; tradesman, was remanded, as it was understood in the hall, until it was ascertained that be had exercised no profitable employment, and had lived upon his property during the time he kept his term: Another member, recently called to the bar, was questioned as to his private life and circumstances, his property, his morals, whether he was married or single, and as to his religion. The reputed leading promoters of the new orders in the courts, Sir James Scarlett and Mr. John Williams, have, it is in courtesy presumed, for their sole intention to maintain the respectability of the bar (according to tlieir notions of respectability); and to procure for the public an additional supply of legal talent. But if it be so it is complained that they have been peculiarly unfortunate in the choice of their measures. The greatest skill must attend the most extensive practice, and there will of course be the utmost diligence where there is the strongest motive. By requiring an attorney to give up practice for two or three years before he is admitted, so much practical skill as that length of increased practice would give, ;s lost, and all his previously acquired practical skill is impaired. ''I he rule also shuts out those who have not property to enable them to maintain themselves during the probationary period, and encounter the risks of failure. By requiring a proficiency in Greek, general literature, and Latin, so much time as the acquisition of the proficiency will absorb is taken from the acquisition of legal knowledge. By expressly or impliedly requiring qualificatiens as to property those are excluded who have the greatest motive fo: exertion. If such regulations as those proposed had formerly been canied into operation in tlieir full spirit they would have excluded the greatest ornaments of the bench and the bar. Lord Eldon and Lord Stowell are the sons of a barge-master and small dealer in coals at Newcastle. Lord Stowell borrowed 40/. to go the circuit, and both supported themselves for a time by tlieir talents as private tutors. Lord Tenter den is the son of a hairdresser, and obtained an eleemosynary education, on the foundation of a charity belonging to the town. The lord chancellor is the son of Mr. Copley, the painter. The chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas is the son of an attorney. Mr. John Williams, one of the benchers of this inn, is the son of a horse-dealer in York shire. Mr. F. Pollock, another bencher, is the son of a saddler of that name at Charing-cross. Mr. Bickersteth, also a bencher, was not long since house-surgeon and accoucheur in fhe family of Lord Oxford. The mother of Mr. Gurney, the bencher, kept a small book-shop for the sale of pamphlets in one of the courts of the city. Mr. Campbell, the kings counsel, and son-in-law to Sir James Scarlett, was one of the class inferior to that which wis recentlv designated in court as " the meanest of mankind, nameW^the*editors of public journals ; for he was a reporter to a daily paper at a tiine when such labour being much worse paid than at Dresent, the situation must have been, according to Sir J. Scarl f'sestimation, much less respectable. Mr. Serjeant Spankie �'one oColleagues. Mr. Stephens, the master ,n chancery, was also a reporter. Five of the judges sent out to our colonies were reporters" and about twelve or fifteen of the present banisters were reporters for the daily papers. The present solicitor-general, Mr. Sugden, is the son of a barber, and was clerk to M Groome, the operative conveyancer to the lata Marqttw-o Londonderry. It is remarkable that the admission �f� Sugden was opposed on the ground that he had been a cterx, and but for the exertions of that most amiabre man �no orna* ment to his profession, Mr. Hargrave, who contended for his adnus* siononthe ground, that whatever he had been, he was aman of talent, and had written a book which displayed qualifications of a superior order, he would now hare been anything but Sir Edward Barten-shaw Sugden, solicitor-general to his majesty. These are only a few of the living examples. The greater number perhaps of the departed members of the profession, who became distinguished in their times, arose mnch in the same manner. Chief Justice Saunders, whose re�-ports of this day form the best text-book to pleaders, was_ a beggar-boy, first taken notice of by an attorney, who took him into his office. Lord Kenyon was an attorney's clerk. Lord Hardwicke was a peasant, and afterwards an atrorney'swriter and office-boy. LordThurlow himself, an illustration of his own rule, used to sajr1, that the surest cause of success to a barrister was, " parts and poverty." When Erskine and Cm-ran once dined with his present majesty, then Prince of Wales, the prince gave a toast, " The bar." Erskine said he owed every thing to the bar: and Curran added, "Then what may I say, since it has raised me frcun the condition of a peasant to the table of my prince 1" It is alleged, as a ground for these proceedings,that the profession of the law is at present overstocked. It has not been acknowledged by the public or by suitors that it is overstocked with talent. It is admitted to be now, as it ever has been, to a greater or less degree, overstocked by numbers, and so is every other leading avocation.. But it is asked, would it be desirable that a.voluntary and irresponsible association of merchants, for instance, should be entrusted wilh the power of admitting persons to competition in commercial pursuits ; and would it be thought that they acted efficaciously ana for the public good if they exacted, as qualifications, an attention tq the ornamental arts, never called for in mercantile affairs, Greek and general literature, and should countenance no candidate but those of fair pedigree, who had means sufficient to enable them to dispense with the painful labour requisite for further acquisitions t There are men below the bar of longer standing, oF mote cxten� sive practice, iii,.;:, 1 . ..�presumea, therefore, of higher acquirements, than any who 'ate likely ia accept tie sjtnifiohs  of s:rpan-diary examiners. These will not be inclined- to submit to re~guh�� tions which will subject them'to the liability of thB.qperation' of professional jealousies. Several members, whjose talents haye already been manifested, and who are not driven; tluris urgens in rebus egestas, have expressed their determination not to submit to rive their sanction to rules of invidious exclusion, more worthy of alow craft than of a liberal profession. They spurn attempts to introduce a system which, in their opinion, would degrade the bar by rendering the success of its members more defendant on adventitious Circumstances than on intellectuaUnerit^^^^ PAPERS RESPECTING THE RELATIONS BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN AND PORTUGAL. 1826-1829. (Continued from our Paper of Saturday.) no. 37.-tue duke of wellington to the earl of aberdeen. London, January, 1829. My Lord-I enclose copies of the correspondence between the Marquis de Barbacena and me, and the Marquis de Palmella and me, regarding the arrival in this country of the Queen Donna Maria da Gloria ; and regarding the Portuguese troops at Plymouth, and their expedition to Terceira. I have the honour to be, &c, To the Eati of Aberdeen, ic. Wellington. first 1ncloscre in no. 37. the marquis de barbacena to the duke of wellington. (^Confidential.) London, Oct. 15, 1828. M. le Due-A matter of urgent importance had made me resolve to repair this day to Strathfieldsay, in order to speak loyonr grace respecting it, instead of making it the subject of a written communication ; but having learned in Downing-street that yon were not ,it your house in the country, and fearing lest your absence may be prolonged for some days, I take the only method which is left 'o me, seeing that the affair in question cannot admit of the least delay. The secretary to the government of the islands of the Azores has just arrived in London, authorised to demand, with the greatest urgency, the immediate despatch of a part of the faithful Portuguese troops which are now in England, and whose presence in the above-mentioned islands would ensure their defence as well as their tranquillity, under the government of the legitimate sovereign, against the attack with which they are menaced by the illegitimate government established in Portugal. Your grace will no doubt feel that it is impossible for the servants of the queen to refuse so just and pressing a demand, particularly as the prolonged residence of a continually increasing number of Portuguese refugees in England entails an enormous expense, and appears to be attended with some inconvenience. Determined as I am to grant the succours which faithful subjects of the queen demand from her, and persuaded that these succours, when once landed at Terceira, will be sufficient to put that island out of danger, I cannot conceal from myself the risks which'the tiansports may run during their voyage if they be not protected by some ships of war. Such, M. le Due, is the strong motive which makes me have recourse to your grace, for the purpose of demanding from his Britannic majesty, in the name of the queen, the convoy of a ship of war, to escort from England to a possession which remains subject to the legitimate authority of her most faithful majesty a part of the loyal troops which are at Plymouth; the succours in question not to b� landed at Terceira in the unfortunate event of that island having fallen under the aggression with which it is threatened. From what is above staled you will see, M. le Due, that there is no question of a hostile undertaking, but simply of a measure of defence, dictated by the feeling of that strict obligation which is imposed upon every sovereign to protect bis subjects. I therefore venture to hope that the government of his Britannic majesty will not refuse to give the queen this first mark of friendship which she requires from the most faithful friend and ally of her august family ; and in this just expectation I request, M. Je Due, that you will accept the thanks which I offer you beforehand, in the name of the queen, and the most formal assurances of the very high consideration with whieh I have the honour to be, &c. (Signed) Le Marquis de Barbacena. His Grace Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington, &c. secono inclosure in no. 36. the duke of wellington to the marquis de barbacena. London, Oct. 18, 1828. Monsieur le Marquis-I have had the honour to receive your excellency's letter of the 15th. The Portuguese who are in England are here in the quality of individuals. We know of no Portuguese troops in this country. If there be any they must quit the country without loss of time. The government has, indeed, much reason to complain of the Portuguese individuals now in Plymouth, who, notwithstanding that they have been received in this-'country with all the hospitality which was possible, have so much forgotten themselves within the last few days as to make an attack upon a house where a Portuguese traveller had taken refuge. I also announce to your excellency that his majesty's government cannot permit that England should be made an-arsenal or a fortress, from whence any one may make war as he thinks proper. If those Portuguese subjects desire to make war at the Azores, instead of doing so in Portugal, of which they had the choice, let them go there as individuals if they please. But I must candidly tell you, Monsieur le Marquis, that it cannot be permitted that individuals, of whatever character they may be, should prepare warlike expeditions in the ports and arsenals of this country, in order to make attacks upon others. Still less can it be permitted that they should be convoyed by the navy of his Britannic majesty, to enable them to make these expeditions in safety. I have the honour to be, &c. (Signed) Wellington, Duke of Victoria. The Marquis de Barbacena, &c. third inclosure a. in no. 37. the duke of wellington to the marquis of palmeli.a. London, Nov. 20, 1828. Monsieur le Marquis-As his majesty's government do not think it proper that a considerable number of persons who have been officers and soldiers in the service of Portugal should remain at Plymouth Lord Aberdeen requested yesterday of his Excellency the Vicomte d'ltabayana that a distribution should be made of them at a distance from Plymouth, having reason to believe that these persons are paid by his excellency the minister plenipotentiary of the Emperor Don Pedro at the court of his majesty. His excellency replied to Lord Aberdeen that these men were not paid by hin, but that his excellency made advances to the Marqp"^ de Palmella, who gave them their pay in the shape of assistant",._ 1 consider it, therefore, to be my duty, Monsieur le MB*qujs' io demand that all the Portuguese who have been officers and soldiers of the Portuguese army, or who have served in th<i army, for example, as students of Coimbra, or volunteers of Oporto, should be desired to quit Plymouth. I also announce to you the wish that the officers may be separated from the soldiers, and that they may repair to Exeter, or to wherever they may desire to go as individuals ; and that the men may be placed in one of the towns or villages named in the enclosed paper, the number in each town or village not exceeding that which is therein indicated. I have the honour to be, &c. (Signed) Wellington, Duke of Victoria. The Marquis de Palmella, &c. third inclosure b. in no. 37. Houses. Population. Truro .................... 410 2,712 300 Bodmin .................. 523 3,278 400 Launceston................ 245 2,183 200 Oakhampton .............. 308 1,907 130 Exeter................... 3.256 23,479 Officers. Brent .................... 116 ,T4 SO Ashburton ................ 396 3,403 - 250 Chudleigh................ 384 2.(b� 250 Tiverton.................. 1.313 8.�51 300 Honto"...........,681 3,296 400 Taunton .................. I-503 8534 500 Bridgewater................ lj��9 6,155 500 fourth inclosure IS no. 37. the duke of wellington to the mar.quis DE PAtMELLA. London, No�. 27,1828. M. le Marquis-In consequence of your informing me that the Portuguese officers and troops now at Plymouth preferred to quit this country and proceed to Rio Janeiro, rather than remove from Plymouth to the neighbouring towns and villages, as I had desired in the conversation which I had with yon on the20th instant and as you have expressed a wish that this government 8hould*ew* these Portuguese a guarantee for their safety from attack on the'trnassaee or send a vessel of war to convoy there, I have to inform vou that his majesty s servants will give orders that a cohtoy shall- be prepared to escort the vessels which will carry these Portugneseitroops according to the wish expressed by yotf. s�Tu�vi� I have the honour to be, &c. The Marquis de Palmelfa?^ Welhsctok. (To be continued.)

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