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London Journal (Newspaper) - March 2, 1728, London, Middlesex The LONDON J O U R N A L. - Saturday, March a. 17x7-8. Numb. 448. To the Author of the London Journal. HERE is nothing Men are more eager for, or contend more earneftly about, than Liberty : Nor is there any thing which more deferves their Pains. Slavery is fb vile and miferable a Condition ; fo op-pofite to every thing that is Man- like, and generous; fo inconfiftent with Reafcn and Happinefs ; fo deftru&ive to Society, and to every thin^ that tends to promote its Good ; that a People cannot be too mHch upon their guard againft every Encroachment upon freedom : Nor can they refent too much the ill Ufage of thafe, who, being constituted the Guardians of Liberty, enter into M The Firfl of theft feems to forget, that aU Men, be they in what Society1 foever, whether in private Clubs, ox Hnder the greateft Governments, are ftill fubjeft to the Law of Nature,- (not to fay any thing of Reveatd Religion,) and therefore cannot be at Liberty to indulge their Paflions, to deal abqut their Calumnies, to detracT, to fit and contrive Jiow to do Mifchief, and ro make Mens beft Endeavours for other Peoples good fruitlefs. They forget that They are obliged to obey This Law as - being prior ro any human Laws ; nor is ir in the Power of any Conftitution to difpenfe with this Obligation General R'proaches fo pointed as to make them be particularly applied, arid general Charges fo levell'd a% to make .Men rum their Eyes Upon a particular Perfon, are in reality, and in Effeft particular Imputations : and when they are groundlefs or falfe, or when they are rot proved, however They may be covered in General Exprefli-ons, they are no better than mere Calumnies. When filch invidious Harangues are made as will fuit all Men in Power at all times, and fuch Accufations are framed, a? all Men are equally concern'd in, who have any Authority, or Influence-This is a breach of that Law which is antecedent to Society, and which no Man can have a Liberty to do. Natural liberty is always retrain*d by the Law of Nature; and that which ought not to be done under The Lavs of Nature, ought not to be done in any Society. To plead therefore for fuch a Liberty as this, is to plead for an Immorality ; and the fame Arguments which are pretended to juftify this Conduct, Will, wifh little Variation, juftify any other Immo-CPrice Two-Pence.) j ratity. Where there is a want of Truth for the Foundation, the Calumny is evident: And when the Perfons, who are the proper Judges of the Crimes imputed, do not condemn, nay do acquit the accufed Peribn of the fcveral Imputations : when a Challenge is made to prove the Crimes th3t are charged, and ftill general Inveftives are made, and nothing particular fpecified ; what is this but the higheft Probability of Innocence on the One hand, of Malice, of Revenge, and of Envy on the Other A Liberty for any Man to fpeak his Sentiments in Matters of Politicks and Religion, is fomething infinitely different from a Liberty xo abufe, and to calumniate particular -Perfbns. Were the Circum fiances of things fuch, that it would be fit to make, or to repeal any Law ; to enter into Leagues or to refufe to enter ; to make Peace, or War ; in fhorr, to alter any part of our Conftitution at home, or to engage in any Meafures abroad ; were the Publhk Good affected, or like to be affected by any Steps that are taken, in God's Name, guard againft the Evil, difcover the Iniquity, fet the Crime in its failleft Light, never ceafe till every one is convinced, and the Grievance is redr^fTed. This is a Liberty worthy of every Freeman, and which the Law of Reafon, the Principles of Society, the Nature of things, will juftify. But to traduce Men,, to -fpread groundlefs Infamy, to b carelefs what is faid or done, provided �he hated Man is injured ; to raife factious Jealoufies, to make the innocenteft things imaginable Matter of Defamation, to attempt per fas & nefas the Ruin of any Perfon, to vow Deft ruction, and to refolve to hunt down any Man, and in order to this to flick at nothing that may be mifreprefented as Infamous -To do This is not Liberty, but an unbounded immoral Licevtioufnefs, as widely different from Liberty,, as Virtue is from Pice. The Notion which Others feem to have of Liberty is not fo immoral, and wicked, as it is ridiculous, and abfurd. They talk as if they thought it to confift in aBing contrary to the Advice, or Re-qtieft of Superiors, even whenTlothing is defired but what is rational and confident with all juft Rights and Privileges; and which, if follow'd, would in their Opinionv/ho advife, promote and ferve the Public Intereft. What Vindication is itof Freedom, or what Stand is it againft any Encroachments upon it, to oppofe, or act contrary to fuch a Requeft? How is Lberty invaded by fuch Meafures1? Are the People lefs Free for this? Or do nor all People, at certain Times, ask their Friends Interefts? What is~the Meaning of Application to People for their Interefts by circular Letters, if all fuch Things are inconfi ftent with liberty ? They will fay perhaps, that Applications from Equals are not improper;'but Applications from Superiors to Inferiors are a Reftraint upon them, and eonfequently a Breach of liberty, and therefore it is right to make a Stand againft it. Be it fo, and fee what Liberty is left to this Nation. It is declar'd to be a Breach of Liberty, for any one in Office to ask any dependent for his Vote: No fort of Superior is to prefume to ask his Inferior; no Landlord is to ask a Tenant for his Affiftance. Will They that glory in fuch a Stand, uniformly and conftantry aft'upon this Principle? Believe it, who-can. But allowing this to be an Infringement upon Liberty, becaufe it may be pretended that Men are atu'd, and influene'd againft their Judgments by Superiors.-Yet what is this to a Cafe where no Threats are ufed, no Power exercifed, no Commands are given. What has a bare Exprejpon of Dejire to do with an Invafion of Lilertyl But when People do not know what True Liberty is, we muft not wonder if they ufe the Word at random, and impofe upon themfelves as well as Others by Sounds without any. Meaning. The Third falfe Notion of Liberty I mention'd, is a Power to do any Thing impunely: Itisaftrong Conceit that Men may aft without any Appre-henfions of Mifchief to themfelves for any Actions ] and Government: it tends dire&ly to Anarchy and Confufion: it defrays all Notions of Property.- it fuppofes no Diftin&ion of Good and Evil; nothing right, and nothing wrong; no natural jfuftict; no right in a Society topreferve or defend'nfcifagainft Affaults and Injuries. If this be Liberty, Coofo-fion may be Order, and every Thing may be any Thing, or nothing. -I- I was williDg, Sir, to remove theCefalfe Notions of Liberty out of the way before I confidered what true Liberty confifted in. This is certainly worth all the Zeal and Pains a Man can take to feenre and defend it: whllftthe falfe and abfurd Notions of ir are fuch as cannot be too ftrenuoufly oppofeiL 1 am, SIR, Tour, &c-PHILAL ETHESk FOREIGN AFFAIRS. Gibraltar, January 20. AL L the Shopkeepers and Tradesmen, who, during the Siege, had left this Place, aie returned to their Hcitfes, the Damages they had received by the Bombs being repaired; and as Veflels go daily toTetuan, and come back with all forts of Refrefhinenrs, we have now Plenty of Provifions. Madrid, Fib. 10. Though the King is fome-what better, a Head-aeh hangs ftill upon him, and befides, his Majefty is fo weak that rhe Phyficians dare not venture to bleed him a fecond time in the Foot; lb that it is yet uncertain when the Court will return hither from the Par.lo : Mesn while Councils continue to be held in Pretence of the Queen and Prince of Afturias. The King of Great Britain's Anfv/cr to the Ultimatum of our > Court, is expected every Moment by an Exprefs. All the military Officers that are in this City, have Orders forthwith to repair to their i.efpe&ive Ports. We have received Advice, that the Troops which were before Gibraltar, are gone into the Quarters affigned them for their Refrefhment, after having firft levelled the Trenches and other Works, and fettled again the Limi's, as they wereN befsre the Siege. Gol. Duke -de Wharton and his Spoufe, are to fet out next Week for Italy, having got Leave of the King tu ftay there fix Months.. Berlin, Feb. 24. Since the King's return from Saxony, great Preparations are making for the Reception and Entertainment of the King of Poland. The Comedy and-Opera from Drefden, are to come hither. Very fine Fireworks are preparing at Charlottenburg, which will coft 10 or 12000 Rix Dollars : The Caftle is finely furnifhing, and very coftly Liveries and Equipages are preparing. The Order of the White Eagle which the King of Poland gave to the Prince Royal of Pruflia is fee with .Diamonds worth 16,000 Rix-Dollars ; and that which General Grumkau received is worth 4000 Rix Dollars. On ThurfHay arrived here Count Fleming from Drefden, and we fhortly expect. Count Seckendorf from Vienna ; and 'tis allured that the laft named will go hence to Dresden to difpatch a Ojmmiflion from the Fmperor to the King of Poland. Paris, Feb 27. "Tis now aflured thatthe CongreS will be held at Cambray, and not in this City, nor hereabouts as the Report run for fome Time. The Minifters Plenipotentiary of "Foreign Courts which are here, have already taken their Lodgings in that City, and they expect, from Spain only the return of the Courier Banniers to fix -the Day for the Opening of the Congrefs. Father Conrayer hath written a very ample Letter to Cardinal de Noailles, containing the Reafons of his Retreat into England. Paris, March 3. Two Hundred Vagabonds will*g be lent fuddenly from Biceftre to the Iflinds,- w] ther fuch fort of People are to be feat year The Chapter of St. Genevive met fome Days a about the Affair of Father Conrayer, and pr< they may be guilty of. But this is not Liberty but nounced againft him an Excommunication a Major\y. Liberthtifm: This is inconfiftent with all Order, and forbid'the Fryars to hold any Correfrwnden^-V 1 ' widS�&
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