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London Daily News Newspaper Archive: February 7, 1846 - Page 6

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   London Daily News (Newspaper) - February 7, 1846, London, Middlesex                                 m  n  I,  it  ' t  Ri  !f  f  •i'i  S/  éï:!.  6  THE DAILY NEWS, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 7. 1846.  MONOPOI.Y.  ESSEX AORTCULÏUKAL PROTECTIONISTS.  fFrom (rar own Reporter.)  CHKLMSFOKD, Fkiday, Feb. 6. A cenCMl meeting of this society was held to-day ia the Shire-haU of Chelmsford, " in con-s^enee'' (according to the words of the advertisement) " of Sir R. Peel havmg developed his plan for abolishing protection to agriculture and other branches of British indust^ m favour of foreign labour " and for the purpose of considering " matters of the deepest importance." Neither at the meeting, which appeared to be composed, for the most part, of landowners and fermera, to the extent of about 300, nor at the dinner which followed it, was there any very markedexhibition of feeling, except from thosogentlemen who took part in the proceedings, the occasional warmth of whose lan'ma^o formed a striking contrast to the cool demeanour of the'audicnce. Besides those gentlemen, there were present, Sir J. TVrreU, M.P. ; Mr. C. Round, M.P. ; Mr. Bramston, M P ; Mr. Quinton Dick, M.P. ; Mr. J. Round, M.P. ; the Rev. Mr. Harvey; the Rev. Mr. James; Mr. Fisher Hobbs; Mr. Bullock; Mr. J. TuffhcU; Mr. J. Numi, The chair was taken shortly after twelve o'clock, by Mr. R. Bak^r, the President of the Society, upon which,  The Secretary read a letter from Mr. G. Palmer, M.P., excusing himself for not attending, on the ground that he was ob%ed to attend a meeting of the parliamentary op^ nents of the premier's measure to-day at two o'clo^ ; also similar letters of apol«^ from Sir H. Smith, M.P., and Major Beresford. .  The Chairman then briefly addressed the meeting, iney were, he said, assembled in consequence of the introducbon of a measure which would produce a CTcater revolution th.an any that had ever yet taken place in this country—a measure which would reduce the value of all agricultural property at least one-third, and the bare proposal of which bad desttoy^ that confidence which ought to be felt in public men, thereby rendering it imperative on the agricultural body to select  new leaders. (Cheers.) .  Mr. W. B. Smith then moved the first resolution, viz :— " That the Essex Agricultural Protection Society having been formed for the purpose of protecting British industry against the unrestricted introduction of the produce of foreign labour into the British market, this meeting views with iiulignatiim and alarm the measures brought forward by Sir Robert Peel in the House of Commons, for the total removal of protection from British agriculture, and the reduction of protective duties in the other branches of na tional industry; that those measures being diametrically contrary to the whole tenor of his previously expressed opinion?, both in and out of parliament, and that, too, at a tune when not the slightest necessity exists for hazarding so great a revolution in property, this meeting considers that Sir Robert Pool no longer deserves the confidence of the couu-tr)', and calls upon every friend to agriculture and the other branches of British industry, to joiu the society in opposing the ministerial free-trade measures by eve^' constitutional exertion and influencs they may posses?. The cheers with which the name of Sir R. Peel had been greeted at their recent conservative festival still rang in their ears. He was then " the farmer's friend," but a change had come o'er the spirit of his dream, (a laugh,) and he could not now bo called anything but a tr.iitor. Never did he belong to a p irty that he did not desert ; never had he served a sovereign whom he had not betrayed ; and now he was_ in league with the man whom he had accused of compassing his murder, for the purpose of betraying the party on whose shouldei-s he had raised himself to his present elevated position. (Hear, hear.) The fact was, he was Manchester bred and was Manchester at heart ; but he hoped that the landlords, the farmers, and the labpurers combined, would prove too strong for the tum-coat Manchester minister. (Cheers.) The time, however, was gone for argument or abuse; they must now act, not talk. Much might be done before the fate of Sir R. Peel's measure was decided in parliament. He (Mr. Smith) waî not for calling on their members to vote according to the will of their constituencies as a general rule. But the present case was an exception, and he now proclaimed that he was for having all the counties to i all on their representatives to vote against the measure or resign. (Hear, hear.) They might do that and they might also petition ; but under any circumstances here must be no surrender. (Cheers.) As for the League, he looked upon it as a Jacobin club, which would not stop shori of universal suffrage, annual parliaments, and vote by ballot. If the Lords rejected the measure—and there was a hope that they would if it ever reached them—they would have a general election, in which case the farmers must fight their own battle—they must sink or swim. There must not be any question then of Whig or Tory, but only, " Are you for protection or no protection ; are you for the country or for Cobden ?" (Cheers.)  The Rev. Mr. Cox, in seconding the resolution, addressed the meeting at some length, his speech being dii-ected principally against the past conduct and the proposed measures of Sir I&)bert Peel. Having been once the untiring cham pion of Protestantism—having since carried the Roman Catholic Relief Bill, and endowed out of the public purse the popish College of Maynooth—having been once the able advocatc of protection to native industry, but since declared himself a convert to the opinions of M essrs. Cobden and O'Connell, it was hard for them not to regard the right hon. baronet os an apostate to his principles and a traitor to his party. (Hear, hear.) The right honourable baronet had jitely said, that he knew nothing so difficult to be recoucilod as an ancient monarchy, a proud aristocracy, and a reformed House of Commons." He had apologised, but not satisfactorily, for the term " proud aristocracy." He was not a man who was in the habit of using such marked and studied phraseology without some great and definite purpose. And what was his purpose when he used that expression ? Evidently this—that he found he was separating himself by his measures and his conduct from the gentlemen of England, and that he must comsequcntly obtain new allies. (Hear, hear.) The right hon. baronet did not mean by that term, dukes and marquisses merely, but the nobility and gentry of England, whom he abandoned with the view of uniting himself to Messrs. Cobden and O'Connell. Mr. Cobden had said that when the corn laws should be repealed, the govoriiment would be carried on by the middle chissos. Peel knew that verj- well, and wished, by using such an expression to conciliate Mr. Cobden. The fact and the inference were botli bomo out by the déclaration of Mr. O'Connell at the Conciliation Hall, in Dublin, a few weeks ago, viz., " that he would go to parliament for the purpose (although he represented an exporting country) of voting for a repeal of the com laws ; for, after all it was only in the confusion of England that Ireland could prosper—Ireland always prospered when England was in misfortune." (Hoar, hear.) Yes, Mr. O'Connell saw the misfortu-.ic that would befall England, if the com laws wore repealed, and in England's misfortune ho saw Ireland's glorj-. (Cheers.) As for the right hon. baronet's " social improvement " compensation, it was the greatest insult ever offered to a party ; while his repeal of the dutv on wheat scheme would take at least lös. a luarter out of the pockets of the farmer. If they ■were to have a free trade in corn, he saw no reason wliy tlie farmer should not be permitted to grow tobacco. But the premier would not agi'ce to that, because he wanted the duties which that article produced.  The resolution having been agreed to, ^  Mr. O. Coi'l..vNn (surgeon) and Mr. G. I'VLCHEli (the mayor of Sudbury) moved and seconded the next resolution, both gentlemen having addressed the meeting on the necessity of " protection to agriculture," and of" breaking down tlie monopoly of manufiicturing wcaltli," but without producing any better effect upon their hearers than impatience or ennui, which shewed itself first in noise and inattention, and finally in open interruption, by such exclamatious as these, " ^\'e knew that before," " You might have said all that in half as many words," " Aye, or in aquartcr as many," " Don't fomet that our menibei-s' are here, and have yet to speak." This last intimation, which was formally made by a gentleman beside the ehair, had the desired effect, and enabled the meeting to give its quiet sanction to the resolution, which was as follows :—  " That this racctinp considers that the interest of every productive class in this kinj^lom is bound up with that of aarricultuVc, and that this is more i>articulariy tlic case with those tradesmen whoso customers arc entirely to be found in the home market—that the leirislativc measures of Sir Robert I'ecl have been most injurious to the industrial classes of the community—imd that the changes contemplateti at the pi-esont moment, if carried out, would involve them in certain ruin. This meeting, therefore, does most earnestly entreat all friends to their country to unite with the agriculturists in their endeavour to defeat measures which must materially diminish thequautity of articles cnn-smned in this coimtry ; and as Sir Robert Peol has stated that he lias no puarantec to (rive that other nations %riU relax their protective duties, it must be erident tliat the abropation of duties by our coinitry alone would expose its inhabitaiit.s to most dLsastrous consequences."  ThcRev. W. Siieiu'-vkd moved the following resolution, of which he strongly approved, more particularly the latter portion, which would leave the Society free to use their inil-enee at the next election :  " That the suddenness and imminence of the danger arising from the miiiistoriid adoption of hYce Trade principles, has i-cnderetl it ne-cectiisary for the tXsex .Agricultural Protection Society to take the most -onergetic and iimuediate steps in def enee of the great interests so iiquriously imd so treaclu-ro\isly a.ssailed. In accordance with that opinion, tliis Meeting on the recommendation of the Committee, do rcscûtô so much of a resolution passed in the Committee on the llith of January last, as appeai-s to restrict the Society ft-om interfering ni the dtc.ion of Membors of Parliament."  Mr. i,ow, in seconding it, said, that as a farmer himself, he had sufficient reliance in the independence and good sense of the agriculturists of the countrj', to believe that they would, at "the next election, which h'c sincerely hoped would take place before Sir R. Peel's measures were "decided on, prove to the right hon. baronet that as far as they were concerned they were determined to oppose his present "policy, and protect iJie country again.st foreign competition.  Mr. J. Bawtuk (a banker), having moved, and Mr. J. Barkeii (agriculturist), seconded the following resolution, it was adopted by the mcetiflg,  " That a humbV memorial be presente<l to the Queen, praving tliat her most graoiout Majesty win be pleased to dLs.solve th"o imrlia-mcnt, and thereby ijvc to the people a fair opportunitv of expressing their opinion on tlie principles of free-ti-ade, introd'ueed and advocated by her Majesy's ministens and that the Duke of lUehmoud be requested to pres<^rc the memorial," "W'hich was therefore read and agreed to.  It was then rcsolvcj, on the motion of Mr. A. Magendie, seconded by Mr. C. T. Tower, that a petition (which was adopted by the meeting) be presented f) the Houi-c of Lords by the Duke of Richmond. It eoutaincd the following passage :—  " Your iietitioncrf feel a.ssurc(l that if these measures are carrie<i into effect with tht present htirtheas of fiscal and other taxation pressing upon the industrial clatscs of the country to a degree to ■»•hieh the producers oS other natóns are strangei-s, it will be imix)s-Bible for them, and esiteciallv of that jxirtiou engaged in agriculture, to pursue their avocation with any chance of rerauturation—independent of the great and ruinous loiW?s to which they will be subject by such a sudden revolution in thi- value of their propertj —and a.s it will be impossible for them to continue their occup.atlons under  for bin conduct therein. 1« doing so, he said it had happened to him that this was the first of their meetings he had been able to attend, and now he was very glad that it had been so, because, had he attended before, he must have spoken with some doubt and hesitatioa as to the degree of support or opposition he would give to the measures of Sir R. PeeL But, now that those measures were fiiUy knovm, he did not hesitate to assure the meeting that he would give them his most uncompromising opposition. (Cheers.)  At four o'clock, about 200 gentlemen, including the M P.'s and many others who attended the meeting, sat down to dinner at the Saracen's Head Hotel, the chair being filled, as before, by  The President of the society, who (after the usual loyal toats) gave " Prosperity to A^cultnre, and may it long continue to flourish," to which no one responded, which scarcely elicited a cheer, and which was almost immediately followed by another, and the only one whicU seemed to excite to any degree of enthusiasm— " The health of the Duke of Richmond," a nobleman, (observed the chairman) who, by the ability, zeal, and firmness he had displayed in resbtin^ the attack which was being made upon the agricultural interest, had shown himself the pillar and support of that interest.  Drank with much applause.  The Chairman next gave the " Health of the county and borough members," expressing a hope thattheir efforts might be successful in opposing the present contemplated destruc tion of the agricwltural interest. (Hear.)  Sir J. Tyrrell, in responding to the toast, tendered his thanks to the county of Essex for the talent and determi nation which it had that day displayed—a county which, he hoped, he would not be assuming too much in saying, was a virgin county at this moment—(cheers)—for not one of its members had been induced to give his support to the startling and dishonest proposition of SirR. Peel. (Hear, hear.) He called it dishonest, because it was not even alleged to be founded on any stronger reason than the trifling experience of the last three years, and because the mode of applying that experience was most fallacious. The hon. hart, pro ceeded to argue that it was both unfair and dishonest to put the agricultural labourers of this country in competition with people whose sustenance depended on » species of food which EnRlishmen would not give to their pigs. Sir R. Peel and Sir J, Graham both said, that with a low price of com they had a diminished amount of crime, but they had in opposition to that the statement of Lord Brougham, that he would suffer his hand to be consumed rather than put it to a document declaring that either disease, famine, or death, had ever been caused by agricultural protection. The s;ime sentiment, he doubted not, he could find in the speeches of Sir R. Peel within the last fifteen years, and although there was no question of importance that he had not at one time advocated and at another betrayed, he had left behind him opinions and declarations, worthy of the great mind which he undoubtedly possessed, and which they had a right to refer to. He (Sir J. Tyrrell) confessed that he did not see his way clearly through their present prospects in the House of Commons. He could not under-  I RELAND.  the accumulation of los-scs to which they ivill be subjected, they must of neecssin- abandon the cultiMitlon of the soil, and leave the population of the countrv to be mainlv dependent on the light]y-ta.xe<l and  -i  m  burdened forcignrr, who would be able to send into our markets com at such a price as the British agriculturists could not contend agaiast. The lamentable consequences would be, that the tradesmen would be ruined bv the loss of a vast portion of their business, and the want of demand for labour would produce the most frightful distress and destitution amongst the labouring cla.sscs—the increase of crimc—and the overflow of the union-house." Mr. Baker having then vacated the chair, Mr. J. Rounj>, M.P., proposed a vote of thanks to him  take to say what would be the result of the Premier's new moasure, because, he regretted to say, there were some weak-minded men in the house, who argued, that if they did not support Sir R. Peel, they would lose him as a leader. He, (Sir J. Tyrrell,) however, was not for being governed by any such reasoning: he was for having a man to do his duty, regardless of any such consequences. (Hear, hear.) But so long as he witnessed in the country such meetings as they had seen ,that day, he did not ^together de.spair. With the view of enlarging the scope of the-sOciety's usefulness and influence, they had thought it right to alter its designation, and call it a society, not only for the protection of agriculture, but also for British industrj'. When the society was originated, they were told that is was purely for the protection of landlords  but now, when they found that all the little interests in the country were attacked as well, he for one was of opinion that they could not throw open their doors too widely—(hear, hoar)—and at once free themselves from the unjust imputation of looking only to their own interests. The good sease of every man must cause him to admit that the well-being of the labouring cla-sses depended on their receiving a fair remunerating price for their labour ; but the proposed measures of the Prime Minister would, he was convinced, have the directly opposite effect, and ought to be resisted to the utmost.  Mr. Buax.stox, M.P., next returned thanks. He com menced by observing that Sir J. Tj-rrell had so exhausted the subject, he had left but little to be said by those who had to follow him. The great question now before the country was not so much a landlord's question as a question for the consideration of the occupying tenant. (Hear, hear.) They saw men of tlie largest properties and greatest wealtn joining in the cry of free trade, forgetting that, although they might cut down their expenditure, and curtail their superfluities upon a diminLshed income, the labouring man had no superfluities or luxuries to dispense with. (Hear, hear.) He agreed with Sir J. Tj-rrell, that it was the bounden duty of every member to do what he considered right, irrespective of the consequences, and he was happy to think that every representative of that county would vote in accordance with his hitherto e.xpressed opinions, and thereby give sitisfaction to his constituents. (Hear, bear.) Their society had been accused of using hard terms iu reference to the policy of Sir R. Peel. Now, " coming events ca.st their shadows before them;" but was there a gentleman in that room who did not feel that the reality far exceeded the shadow—(hear, hear)—and that it was a reality which called for their sti'ongcst condemnation, although he was not aware that language stronger than one gentleman might use towards another had been indulged in by their society. They had certainly accused the Premier of turning his back upon his former opinions ; and looking to the events of tlie last few years, it was difhcult for the injured farmer not to feel indignant at that change. (Hear, hear.) The Premier's reason for changing his opinion was the failure in the potato crop. That was a difficulty, no doubt, which had to be deidt with, but, however great, it could only be regarded as a temporary difficulty ; and as such ought to be met by temporary measures of alleviation—(hear, hear)—and not by such a sweeping alteration of the law as was now proposed. Loek-ing to the numerous resignations of members, and from all be could learn on the subject, he felt bound to inform them, as one of their representatives, that lie believed that measure would pass the House of Commons. If so, it would bo for them to consider whether there still remained any means by which they could hope to meet the difliculty of their position. The measure must undergo considerable amendments in the H<mse of Commons, and it would be for their representatives to press those amendments wliich would be likely to lessen its injurious character. Some time must necessarily elapse before the measure would progress to that stage at which amendments could be proposed, and in the interim it would be for the fanners and agriculturists generally to consider whether it would be more desiralile to have the corn question, which it involved, finally settled at once, or postponed for three years.  It was a matter of surprise that this suggestion caused no sensation amongst the company. One gentleman was heard to say, " I should be inclined to put it off for three years," but i"n such a tone as to lead to the supposition that he did not much care whieli way it was settled.  The hon. member proceeded to observe that he gave no opinion upon the point himself, and merely threw it out for their consideration.  Mr. C. Rou.vd and the other members present also responded to the toast, and expressed their determination to resist the recently-proposed measm-es of the government.  (From our special Correspondent.)  Dublin, Feb. 5.  the potato famikb.  I do not know to what extent I have been able to convey to the readers of The Daily News, the sad wailing cry of approaching famine ; but I certainly think the facts which I have from time to time communicated, cannot have been fully estimated ; nor, in the whirl and excitement of political events at home, can these appalling advances of so dreadful an a Hiction upon millions of our fellow-creatures, have been really taken into the consciousness and the heart of the majority of those to whom my sUtemcnts were more especially addressed. But Government seems to think that famine mttsi wait until Government chooses to move.  The accounts received in town to-day leave no longer any doubt that famine—not want or scarcity—hat/ami?ie, is rapidly approaching. From Galway we learn that want is pressing on the poor already, and the price of food has rcached such a height that it can only be obtained by the population in actual employment, and by them not in sufficient abundance to satisfy the demands of hunger. The price of labour in Galway scarcely averages 8d. per day ; the price of potatoes is9d. An agricultural labourer will consume half-a-'itone of potatoes per di'e/ii, and when your readers recollect that every labourer is almost always "provided with a family, you will perceivc how terrible is this condition of things,  The people have already threatened to put a stop to the exportation of com, and hence the immission of troops amongst them. Their duty will be to superintend the export of com from Galway, while the people of Galway starve for want of it. _  WANT OF FOOD—SUPPLY OF TROOPS.  (From the Galway Vindicafor.)' The question of famine is no longer one of surmise. Its certainty, in a few months at furthe.it, is even acknowledged by the Government; and the reports which come in every day from the rural districts but too sadly confirm the conclusion which has been arrived at from the most carefully collected fiiets.  Potatotes bear even now a famine price in the market. White potatoes go 41d. per stone, and cup potatoes 5d. We beheve lOd. per stone in times of the greatest famine was the highest price for potatoes ever known in Galway, and when we take into consideration that the potatoes now brought for sale to market are not only diseased to a great extent, but one-third of them completely waste to the purchaser in two or three days, the 4id. per stone rises in real value to 9d. or lOd. When this is the case at present, what will it no • be in a few weeks hence when the crop is more e.xhausted? At the price which potatoes are even only now, a labourer employed the whole week at lOd. per day-the usual price of labour in this district is often lower-has to lay out the entire of his week's wages on them alone, if he is even so fortunate as to be able to purchase with it a sufficient quantity of this lowest article of human food. There is nothing for any other accompanying article of diet—nothing, unle.ss the belly is stinted of this worst kind of food—nothing, for fuel, rent, or clothing—nothing, for milk or fish—^meat is out of the question. If this is the case at preseat with the labourer in full employment, how must it fare with the unfortunate creatures who have it only occasionally or fare with both, when food becomes dearer, and is placed totally out of their reach ? Our contemporary adds, "a troop of the 13 th Light Dragoons, from Gort, arrived here on "Tuesday, under the command of Captain Hamilton, for the purpose, it is said, of repressing any outbreak among the people which may arise, owing to the exportation of com from this port. Two companies of the 30th are likewise expected—one from Loughrea, the other from Outerard —to aid the force in garrison, if necessary. The dragoons and additional military are e.xpected to be stationed here for some time. This increase of troops is said to have been caused by the posting of a threatening notice at the gas-house last week, to the effect that the merchants' stores would be broken up by the people if any further exportation of corn was attempted.  Her Majesty's war-steamer the Stromboli, arrived at the port of Galway on Monday evening, and anchored at the roadstead.  DISTRESS IN DUNGARVAN. (From the Waterford Freeman). Notwithstanding all the representations of the great distress prevailing in this locality, and the unmistakcable fact ired  Roscommon-Edward King Tennison, Esq., of Castle  Tennison, Kcadue. _ , „ , n  Sligo-Edward Joshua Cooper, Esq., of Markree CasÜe,  ^°T^n^Franeis Gervais, Esq., of Manor C^ü Clogher. Waterford-Sir Robert; J. Paul, Bart., of Ballyglane,  of John's Hill  Roy.vl Anxivers.\ries Windsor.—(From a Correspondent.)—A royal command has just been communicated tiirougli the medium of Colonel Bowles, the master of her Majesty's household, for the information of the eight ringers belonging to the parish church of New Windsor, to the effect that the bells of the church are not in future to ring merry peals, as heretofore, upon the occasion of the following anniversaries :—Her Majesty's accession, her Majesty's coronation, and the birthdays of the King of Hanover, the "Duke of Cambridge, the Duchess of Gloucester, and the Princess Sophia, the uncles and aunts of the Queen. The ringers have been informed by Colonel Bowles, that the two guineas which have, upon each former occasion, been paid to the ringers by Sir Henry Wheatley, the keeper of the privy purse, have been ordered to be paid no longer. Mr. Pond, the to\\-n gunner, has also received a similar command re specting the discontinuance of the firing of royal salutes upon the s.ime anniversiiries, it having been intimated to him, at the same time, that the paj-ment of the usual sum of one guinea, upon each occasion, has been commanded to be discontinued. The bells, however, arc to be rung, and the royal salutes fired, upon the same terms as formerly (two guineas for the hell-ringiug and one guinea for the salutes), agreeably to "tlie instructions officially communicated by the Master of the Household, upon the following anniversaries ; reducing the number from fifteen to nine, to the great disappointment of the ringers and the town-gunner.—Her Majesty's marriage, herMajesty's birthday, and the birthdays of the following members of the royal family :—The Queen Dowager, the Prince Consort, the Prince of Wales, the Princess Royal, Prince Alfred, the Princess Alice, and the Duchess of Kent. It is expected, the Duke of Cambridge being the high steward of the borough, that the bells will be rung and the royal salute fired on the 24th inst., the birthday of his royal highness, at the expense of the corporation. A public subscription has also been spoken of, on the part of the inhabitants, to " keep up " the ringing and firing, as formerlv, upon each of the remaining five anniversaries, in order that due honour should be done at Windsor (as elsewhere) to those auspicious events.  P.\lermo, J.\x. 10.—This day, the betrothals of the Prince Royal of Wurtemberg and the Grtmd Duchess Olga were celebrated in the Greek Chapel of the Palazzo d'Olivazzo, in the presence of the Empress and suite.  The Hague, Feb. 2.—The annivei-sary of the birthday of her Royal Highness the Princess Frederick of the Netherlands, was observed yesterday in this town with the usual ceremonies.  The Map of the French Staff.—Lieiitenant-  General Baron Pelet, Peer of France, Director-General of the Depot of War and the Map of France, had the honour to present to the King the 10th section of this map, laid down by the officers of the royal corps of the staff. This new section consists of ten complete sheets—Coutances, .Vleneon, Nogent-le-Rotrou, Le Mans, Gien, Loches, Va-lencay, Bourgc.s, Beaun^ and Maron. The number of shoets already published, is 105, including the title and the coloured plan, which presents the precise arrangement of this great undertaking. As regards the precision of .scientific operations, and the levels, the skill of the drawing and engraving, this map of France has long occupied the first place amon^ the similar works of Europe. The learned worid caUs this production '' The Map of the French Stafi"," a name j^tly due to it. One hundred and forty-five sheets are already published, or in the hands of the engineers The number of sheets finished by the mappers on the ground itself, IS 163, and about sixty-eight more sheets will complete this vast survey. In a campaign, sixtv-five officers, charged vvith the topographical details, lay down ten sheets "Thus it requires seven years to perfect this great work. Since 1837 there have been seventy-eight officers employed every year on this map of France ; fourteen for the geological, and sixty-four for the topographical arrangements.  of a subscription being entered into, to partially relieve it, the rulers of the countiy are looking as listlessly on as if the appalling facts detailed had no reality. We must again d them that there are upwards of 5,000 persons at present in a starving condition in Dungarvan, and there is no prospect whatever of relief for this distress. Were it not for th ■ humanity of a few individuals, who generously and benevolently came forward and subscribed a large sum, we would before now have to record many deaths from actual starvation. "The poorhouse is full, the Fever Hospital full, and contagious disease spreading rapidly, still no prospect of relief to the sufferers. We fear many will fall victims to the present distress, and are we to call in vain on the government to render some reliefWhere are the donations of the wealthy absentees holding property in that neighbourhood, to aid the struggling man of business, who is compelled to witness the sufferings of his starving neighbours } We have not heard of a single one cominsj forward as yet, though when the rent becomes due they will not fail to demand it from all, and then it is brought to a foreign land, whei-e the posses-sor may enjoy himself -without witnessing the appalling scenes of misery which he could not avoid observing at home.  (From the Cork Examiner.)  The accounts we continue to receive from Dungarvan are indeed melaneholr in the extreme. Sickne.«, .scarcitj', and want of employment, shed their bitterness upon the devoted heads of the poor. There are upwards of five thousand human beings, we are given to understand, in a state of want and wretchedness, requiring assi.stance from government, or from those w^hom God has blessed with the means for such purpose. The poor-house is crammed with women and children, in which there are upwards of forty men, capable of work, but none to be had. Tho spread of fever is really alarming, induced, of course, from want, cold, and hunger. Nor do the evils stop here. The poor-law-guardians met on last Thursday, when they reported that the supply of potatoes, destined for use during the season, and carefully put up, turned out, on examination, to be more than half rotten, and that the remainder are going fast. It is some consolation, under those melancholy circumstances, when the government does not seem to move in the matter, that the townspeople are exerting themselves with equal spirit and benevolcnce. From the subscriptions raised potatoes are purchased in large quantities, and sold after by retail, at first co.st, to the poor, a plan attended with much good results. In the meantime the board of guardians and the inhabitants and rate-payers of the towni have addressed the Lord-Lieutenant. The replj' of his excellency to the memorial of the guardians, under the circumstances, is cold, heartless, and flippant. What cares this Euglish official, this worn-out diplomatist, for the starving people of an Irish fishing-town ? What sympathy could he have with their misery—what fellow-feeling for their distress ? 'Tis a heartless mockerj'—this creating Englishman and Scotchman into vice-kings. Thronging them in the marble halls of St Patrick, and giving them jurisdiction and sway over a warm hearted people, in whose elevation they take no interest, for whose prosperity they are not proud, and for whose afflictions they do not grieve.  DIMINISHING SUPPLIES OF CORN.  The Ki-ny Examiner oi'WcAnc&day, says:—" The supply of com at our markets is perceptibly diminishing, the farmers having poured in their grain as fast as they could through fear of the effects of Sir Robert Peel's contemplated alteration in the eom-law^s. For the same rciison prices are falling, but yet steadily, and as it were, cautiously and reluctantly. On Saturday last oats carried 9id. and QJd. On Monday the supply was middling, and prices the same as on Saturday.  HIGH SHERIFFS OF IREL.IND FOR 1846.  His Excellency the Lord Lieutenant has been pleased to appoint the undermentioned gentlemen to the office of high sheriff for the following counties and counties of cities and towns in Ireland for the year 1846 :—  Antrim—Thomas Morris Hamilton Jones, Esq., of Money-glass, Toomebridge.  Armagh—Robert Wright Cope Cope, Esq., ofLoughgall, Loughgall.  Carlow—Philip J. Newton, Esq., of Dunleckney, Bag-nalstown.  Carrickfergus Town—Valentine AVilliam Magill, Esq., of Carrickfergus.  Cavan-The Earl of Bective, of Headfort House, Kells.  Clare—Mic ael Finncane, Esq., of Stamer Park, Eunis.  Cork—James H. Smith BaiTy, Esq., of Foaty, Cove.  Cork City—David Leahy Arthur, Esq., of Shanakiel House, Cork.  Donegal—William Fenwick, Esq., of Green Hills, Raphoe.  Down-Robert Batt, Esq., of Purdy's Bum, Newtownend.  Dtogheda Town—James Gernon, Esq., of Drogheda.  Dublin—the Hon. Edward Lawless, of Lyons, Rathccoole.  Dublin City—Alexander Bojde, Esq., of CoUege-green, and Belview, Kingstown.  Fermanagh—J. N. Blake, Esq., of Nixon Hall, Ennis-killen.  Galway—Christopher St. George, Esq., of Tyrone House, Oranmore.  Galway Town—Lachlan M'Lachlan, Esq., of Galway.  Kerrj-—Wilson Gun, Esq., of Oak Park, Castleisland.  Kildare—Conway R. Dobbs, Esq., of Castle Dobbs, Carrickfergus.  Kilkenny—George Bryan, Esq., of Jenkinsto^vn, Kilkenny.  Kilkenny City—William Grace, Esq., of Kilkenny.  King's County—Henry P. L'Estrange, Esq., of Moystowu, Clogha».  Leitrim—Robert La Touche, Esq., of Harristown, Kil-cullen.  Limerick—William H. Barrington, Esq., of Glenstal, Barrington's-bridge.  Limerick City—William Roche, Esq., of Limerick.  Londonderry County and City—John Barre Beresford, Esq., of Learmount, Londonderry.  Longford—George Maconchy, Esq., of Coolock House, Raheny.  Louth—Lewis Upton, Esq., of Glyde Farm, Ardee.  Mayo—Patrick Crean Lynch, Esq., of Cloghen House, Bally glass.  Meath—James Waller, Esq., of AUenstown, Kells.  Monaghan—John Richardson, Esq., of Poplar Vale, Monaghan.  Queen's County—Chidley Coote, Esq., of Huntingdon Portal lington.  Waterford Waterford City—Thomas Sheppard, Esq.  \^tmeath—Sir George F. Hodson, Bart., of HoUy Park,  ™v4xford—Henry Alcock, Esq., of Wüton, Enniseorthy. Wicklow—Charies Tottenham, Esq., of Ballycurry, Asß-ford. _  ELECTION NEWS.  The foUowing are the addresses of Lord Ashley and Mr.  " l^the Gentry, Clergy, Freeholders, and other Electors of the County of Dorset. " GenÜemen,—The first minister of the crovvn has propounded to the parliament a measure for the total abolition of aU protective duties on the importation of foreign com.  " The bill seems so well adapted to meet the present and future exigencies of the country, that I shall think it a point of duty to do all in my power towards rendenng it the law  ofthelMid. , , . ^  " I ventured, in the month of October last, to direct your attention to the pressing necessity of an immediate settlement of this long-agitated question. That necessity is now increased tenfold by the act of the government, and a r^ist-ance to it, which could not postpone the measure beyond the interval of a few months, would mitirate none of the apprehended evils, and would raise up others of a more formidable kind. , . n T,  "Istate these arguments for your senousreflection, but they are not the sole grounds on which I rest my determma-tion to support the measure. ^ • xl  " I shall accept it not only without alarm, but in the lull and confident hope that it will prove conducive to the welfare of all classes of the community.  " But there is a preliminary consideration. The appeal to the country in 1841 was, in fact, whatever the ostensible purpose, an appeal on the question of the com-laws. I maintained, at that time, that protection was indispen.sablo, though I reserved a discretion in all details, and obtained your support accordingly.  "I am now of opimon that it is no longer expedient to maintain such protection.  " Although no pledges were asked or given, I should be acting in contravention of an honourable understanding between myself and the electors on this especial matter were I to retain my seat and vote for the ministerial measure.  " I have therefore requested the grant of the Chiltem Hundreds, that you may have the opportunity of proceeding to another election.  " You will readily believe that I contemplate such an event with exceetling pain. It would sever a connection which I have enjoyed with honour and pleasure for fourteen years—one that I greatly prefer to any that could be offered.  "It would shut me out, perhaps for ever, from public occupation, and stop the progress of various measures to which I have devoted the best years of my political life, atid surrendered many hopes of personal advantages. I mention these things to prove to you how deep and how sincere are my convictions.  " I am indebted to your kindness and confidence for the opportunities I have enjoyed of public service, and which, I trust, I have not misused. I shall ever retain towards you a lively sense of gratitude and esteem, with an ardent and unceasing prayer for your general and individual wel-fiire.  " I shall appear on the hustings on the day of nomination, and call for a show of hands, to ascertain, beyond a doubt, the sentiments of the constituency.  " I am, gentlemen, with much respect and esteem,  " Yom' faithful friend and servant,  " ASHLEY.  " London, January 31,1846."  " to the electolls of the county of dorset.  " London, January 31, 1846 " Gentlemen,—The bill affecting the agricultural and other interests is now before the country.  " My opinion respecting the justice of the com-laws has undergone no change, though I do not consider it to be politic or wise to contend for their integrity under existing circumstances, and it is useless, and it is hopeless.  " The com-laws, however defensible in argument, require the general concurrence of the community: when the countty is divided into two masses, and when its intellect is in opposite arraj', a law of this nature is no longer tenable. Such is the state of things in this countty at the present moment.  " Sir Robert Peel, the Duke of Wellington, the whole cabinet, with the crown, are among 3'our opponents. " The fate of the corn-laws is thus sealed. " I was elected by you, an agricultural constituency, on t full understanding that I would support the com-law.s I lately stated, to you my opinion ' that parliament would soon be dissolved, and that a measure involving the repeal of the corn-laws should be left to the decision of a new parliament,' and I therefore assured you ' that I would oppose such a measure, whatever my private judgment might be thereon—that had the parliament been younger, and a diffritence of opinion on tl e -orn-laws had arisen between us, I would ill that case, have resigned my tmst into your hands.'  " Parliament is not likely to be dissolved. It has been my misfortune to differ from you on many occasions—on the relaxation of protective duty in the corn-law of 1842—on t'ae tariff—on the Canada Corn Bill—on the Dissenters' Chapels Bill—on the Maynootli Bill—and now, as a elima.x, on the course to be pursued with regard to the  vice Assistant  important measure now before the country  " I now, therefore, redeem my pledge in its full spirit, by vacating my scat, thereby giving you the immediate power of electing one who may mora accurately represent your opinions, and more consonantly carry out your objects.  " With dee]! gratitude for the trust reposed in me, and with great regret at its termination,  " I have the lionour to be, gentlemen,  " Your most faithful and obedient servant, " Hexky Charles Sturt."  The Dorsetshire Election.—We believe up to tliis time no gentleman has been fixed upon to oppose the reelection of Lord Ashley or }Ir. Sturt; and, indeed, we think it will be found difficult, both in this county and in others, to find gentlemen who will go to parliament under a pledge that would fetter their independence and reduce their influence, consequently we would suggest to the agriculturists, with aU sincerity, that they must not place too much dependence on this mode of defeating the government measure.—Sherborne Journal.  Rutlandshire.—The Sheriff of Rutland announces that the nomination of a representative for that county, in the place of the Hon. W. H. Dawnay, resigned, will tilic place on Saturday, the I4th inst.iut, at "the Castle of Oakham ; and the poll will commence on the following Tuesday, should one be required. The only candidate is the Hon. Gerai-d James Noel, a lieutenant in her Majesty's 11th regiment of hussars, and second son of the Earl of Gainsborough. The delicate state of hciilth of his lordship's eldest son, Viscount Camp-den, prevents his coming forward at this time. It is now understood that the Hon. Gerard Noel will not be opposed, and that his pretensions are supported by the Marquis of Exeter. The inference is, that at a general election the Gainsborough and Exeter interests will i)e united in Rutland, and that the present member (Gilbert John Heathcote, Esq.) will have to stand tho brunt of a contest in opposition to them. The Hon. Gerard Noel is expected to arriv« at Exton Park, from Rome, al)out the middle of next week.— atamford Mercury.  It is reported that Mr. Bunburj- will resign his seat for the county Carlow, in favour of solicitor-general Brewster, as government will require an Irish law officer in parliament. The election for Cashel wiU be held to moiTow (Thursday), Aldennan Timothy O'Brien, of Dublin, is the repeal, and, we believe, the only candidate.—Lt/nej'ii'A Chronicle.  Representation of Chichester. - Lord Arthur Lennox has taken leave of his constituents in a farewell adckess ; and Lord Henry Gordon Lennox has ofl'ered himself as a candidate for the vacant scat.  East Somerset.—Colonel Langton is certain of his .seat, come the election when it may. Some persons, who are well qualified to judge, say tliat there will be no opposition ti the le-election of the present members, while many of the ultra-protectionists assert that a stout contest will ensue, aud that a candidate in unison with Mr. Miles's political views' will, be brought forward. The Liberals have been actively engaged in purifying the register, and if a dissolution occur after the next registration, it will be their own fault if two free-trade members are not returned.  West Somerset.—Political affairs here are iu such a state that no correct conclusion can be come to. Messrs. Acland and Dickenson are the most unpopular of men with the high Tory landlords. With scarcely one exception every agricultural dinner they have attended this past season has been one continued scene of uproar and confusion when their healths have been given. Men with any spirit, seeing how matters stood, would at once have severed the connection which bound them to the county.  Bristol.—The Liberals stand well as to the register, and tact and judgment can secure the return of two anti-monopolists.  Taunton.—It is supposed that a Carlton Club nominee will contest this borough with the present Liberal members. He will, as a matter of consequence, lose hLs election, lose his mon ey, and get well laughed at to boot.  Bridgf.water.—Many of the Liberals are anxious to secure the services of J. E. S. Drcwe, Esq., the high-sheriff of Devon, who bravely offered battle to the present Tory members at the last election. He is a popular man here, and if he come forward, and a fair battle be fought he is certain of election.  Frome,—A Liberal here stands an excellent chance, and Mr. Stmch, the late candidate, will, no doubt, be the future member for this town.  BUCKINGHAM.  RESIGNATION OF SIR THOM.VS FRF.MANTLE.  The following address has been issued ;—  " TO THE ELECTORS OF THE liOllOUGH OF BUCKINGHAM :  " Gentlemen,—I deem it my duty to inform you that it is my intention to resign my scat in parliament, and to restore into your hands the trust which you have for many years committed to me.  " Since my return from Ireland, where I have been occupied since the month of August in the discharge of my official duties, I have carefully considered the position in which this country is placed in consequence of the political events which have recently occurred.  " The administration of Sir Robert Peel has been dis-•solved—the country remained without a government for ten days ; and Lord John Russell found himself unable to construct a new ministry.  " Under these circumstances, Sir Robert Peel felt it his duty to his Sovereign to resume the functions of First Minister of the Crown; all tho members of his formir cabinet, with one exception, concurred in that decision, and have determined to support the measures which have been announced to the House of Commons, for the abolition of  From the LOXDOX GAZETTE of Friday, Feb. 6.  Prince of Wales' Council-Chamber, Somerset-House, Feb. 4, 1846. Christopher Henry Thomas Hawkins, of Trewithen, in the county of Cornwall, Esq., has been appointed Sheriff of the county of Cornwall.  Downixg-Street, Feb. 4. The Queen has been pleased to appoint Joseph Gibson Gordon, Esq., to be Provost-Marshal for the Virgin Islands.  Crown-Office, Feb. 6. members returned to serve in this present p.i.r-li.^ment.  County of Sussex—Eastem Division.—Charles Hay Frewen, of Northiam, in the county of Sussex, E.sq., in the room of George Darbj-, Esq., who "has accepted the office of Steward of her Majesty's Chiltora Hundreds.  City of Cork.—Alexander M'Carthy, of Upper Fitzwil-liam-street, in the city of Dublin, Esq., in the room of Francis Stock Murphy, Esq., who has accepted the office of Steward of her Majesty's Manor of Northstead.  Borough of Ripon.—The Hon. Edwin Lascelles, of Hare-wood House, in the county of York, and of Belgrave-.squarc, in the county of Middlesex, in the room of the Right Hon. Thomas Berry Cusach Smith, who has accepted the otBce of Master of the Rolls in Ireland.  Count of York, West Riding.—George William Frederick Howard, commonly called Viscount Morpeth, in the room of the Honourable John Stuart Wortley, now Baron Wharn-cliffe, called up to the House of Peers.  War-Office, Feb. 6. _4th Dragoon Guards.—Lieutenant Thomas Jones, from the loth Light Dragoons, to be Lieutenant, vice Souter, who efschanges.  , 7th Dragoon Guards.—Cornet Philip Bunbury to be Lieutenant, by purchase, '»•ice Arkwright, who retires; Nicholas De la Cherois, Gent., to be Cornet, by purchase, vice Bunbury.  loth Light Dragoons.—Lieutenant Richard Souter, from the 4th Dragoon Guards, to be Lieutenant, vice Jones, who exchanges  1st (the Royiil) Regiment of Foot.—Captain William Webster, from half-pay Unattached, to be Captain, vice Richard BlackUn, who exchanges,  4 jth Foot.—Lieutenant Henry Woodbine Parish to be Captain, W purchase, vice Lucas, who retires; Ensign Lawrence Trent Cave to be Lieutenant, by purchase, vice Parish; Frederic Robert Grantham, Gent., to be Ensign, by purchose, vice Cave.  5'2nd Foot.—Ensign Hugh Montgomery Archdall, to be Lieutenant, by purchase, «ce Hawkins, who retires; 'Thomas Henry Vywan, Gent., to be Ensign, by purchase, Archdall; John Henry Dundas, Gent., to be Sui^eon, vice Skene, deceased.  06th Foot.—Lieutenant George William Patey, t» be Captain, by purchase, vice Smith, who retires; Ensign George Scott Hanson, to be Lieutenant, by purchase, vice Patey; William Watkin Bassett, Gent., to be Ensign, by purchase, vice. Hanson.  .57th Foot.—Lieutenant Edward Stanley, to be Captain, without purchase, vice Lj-nch, deceased  78th Foot.—Assistant Surgeon James Leiteh, M.D., from the 94th Foot, to be Assistant Surgeon, vice limes, appointed to the 4th Dragoon Guards  92d Foot.—The Honourable Walter Charteris to be Ensign, by purchase, vice Carnegie, appointed to the Grenadier Regiment of Foot Guards.  97th Foot.—Lieutenant Marc Anthony Obert to be Captain, by purchase, vice Garforth, who retires; Ensign Edward D. Harvest to be Lieutenant, by purchase, vice Obert Thomas Edward Jones, Gent., to be Ensign, by purchase, vice Harve.st  Ceylon Rifle Regiment.—Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Sim-monds, from St. Helena Regime:it, to be Lieutenant-Celonel, rice Auchmuty Montresor, who retires upon half-pay Unattached  St. Helena Regiment.—Lit u^enant-Colonil John Ross, from half-pay Unattached, to be Lieutenant-Colonel, vice Simmonds, appointed to the Cey'o i Rifle Regiment. Brevet.—Surgeon Alexander Russell Jackson, M.D  Surgeon of the E^ist India Company's Depot at Warley, to have the local aud temporary rank of Staff Surgeon of the First Class, while so employed.  Unattached.—To be Captain, without purchase.—Lien tenant William Webster, from the 1st (Royal) Regiment of Foot.  St.^.ff.—Lieutenant Alexander Gordon Morehead, from the 26th Foot, to be Adjutant of a Recruiting District, vice Mason, whose appointment has been cancelled.  Hospital Staff.—Staff Assistant Surgeon Francis Robert Waring to be Staff Surgeon of the Second Class,  Memorandum.—Captain Charles S. S. Evans, 76th Foot, and Lieutenant Henry Andrew Grant Evans, 22nd Regiment, have been permitted to assume and bear the name of Gordon, in addition to and after that of Evans. The name of the Assistant Surgeon, appointed to the 94th Foot, on the 23rd Januai-j-1846, is James Leitch, M.D., and not Lutch as previously stated.  Err.^tum in the Gazette of 11th April 184-5. gist Regi ment of Foot.—For Ensign Robert Henty Howard to b( Lieutenant, without purchase, vice Harding, who resigns read, Ensign Robert Henry Howard to be Lieutenant, without purchase, rice Harding, deceased.  Office of Ordnance, Feb, 6, 1846.  Royal Regiment of Artillery.-Second Captain Charles Herrick Bumaby to be Captain, vice Shepherd, deceased ; First Lieutenant Charles James Buchanan Riddell, to be Second Captain, rice Bumaljy ; Second Lieutenant Henry Mercer to be First Lieutenant, vice Riddell.  Memok.v..vdu.m.—The datas of the promotion of the under-mentioned officers have been altered as foUow :—Captain J Hile, 30th November, 1845; Second Captain J. H. Lefroy 30th November, 1845 ;. First Lieutenant R. Phelips, 30th November, 1845.  Corps of Royal Engineers.—Major General Elias Walker Dumford to be Colonel Commandant, vice Sir F, W. Mul caster deceased.  and March 24, at eleven, at the fxx-ds District Court ri». ■* Mr.U. M. tVceman; Solicitors, .Air TavS- N?,^; ■Mgaee  Mr. Haxby, Dcwsburj-; and .M^. ij^nd, Loffi  Joiis Hn.l,Digbcth, Birmingliam7currici and • , Feb. 18, at twdve, and March 2«, at tw^, at?he bSL'5 trict Court Official as.signec, Mr. K vinv lsi™1n 1 Mr. T. Ilardrng, BirmingW. " ■ »"mngham; soUcC^  James IXw, Newark-upon-Trcnt, Nottinghamshire nuc» chant and brick maker, Feb. IR, at eleven ami Mn,^,'. mer.  the Birmmpham District Couri: OfflS'S^Mr V'wv ^  Gkorgf. Ha.ndel OPF-NsnAW, I.anca.stcr, powcr-loom cloth ™ . tm-er, de^-r and chapman. Feb. 19, at one, and MWh 1* the Manchester District Court. Official assignee Mr p'l. Manchester ; SoUcitors, Messrs. Bower and Son, iihdon • l?'®®»' Ain-sworth and Son-s Blackburn. ' ' MeaaS  DIVIDEXDS.  Feb. 27, R. Mackenzie, Hunter-street, Bninswiek-.sni,„~ _3n agcnt-Feb. 27, J. Hind, GeorRe-row, Ber^nS m Feb. 27, R. Lec and Co., I^mbard-strect, ¿nke™™,^ Elsing, Norfolk, miUer-Jfareh 3, D. Sclden and W H-n^',; ' merchants-Feb. 17, E. T. Tones and H. M. t-ro8.,kiil »  scUiTs-Feb. 17, E. T. Jones, Rochdale, booksclleriif,h'lii'>k. CrosskiU, Kochdale, bookscHer-Feb. 18,T.Todd, MantW',^;^ dcaler-Feb. 27, T. Gallimore, Burslera, Staffo^shhe ^ m:mu{acturcr. '  CEKTIF1C.\TES to be granted, unle« cause be shown to Ihr-  on the diiy of meeting. »ntraiy,  Feb. 28, A. S. Tucker, Melcomb KegU, grocer—Feb n ar tkj well, Melcomb Regis, grocer—March 3, Robinson, Uh^K cWk,?"' chant—March 4, M. Sturley, Southam, organ.huUdcr--Vpir '» m Brown, Atheretone, ironmonger-Feb. 27, G. B. liudge mii» i Rudge, Glouccster-strect, Curtain-road, japan leather innmr^JiLZl -Feb. 27, AV. Wood aud J. Holmes, MaidsCe, W. HuUey, Bakcwell, Derby.shire, tiilor-Feb. 27 oY «^ LuJJow, Salop, scrivencr—Feb. 27, W. G.Tavlor and'K ' Ouv S street Liverpool, hosiers and glovers—Feb. 27, T. Bailev lUmtJa  " ' 'I- C. Kendall, Canonburv Tavcn^ J. ^v^ige, 01dComptonUtn>ct, ¿hoi  Bc:lminster, builder—Feb. 27, J. liiigton, tavern-keeper—Feb. 27, square, tavern-keeper—Feb. 27, J. T. Maiind, Birndigiiiuiu'toS^^ keeiicr—Feb. 27, R. T. Tcrrv, Bristol, ship chandler, PARTNiiRSHIPS UISSOUUD. J.Hampson and Co., Kendiil, railway contractors—W. SiunDsonami Co., London, merchants-T, and S, Padgct, Wakefield, linenclniwi^ J. Milne and Co., Royton, Lancashire, cotton-manufacturers so far a, regards J. Turner—W. Gibson and J. Dover, Manchi-stcr brokomZ R, Kay and C. Gree^ Manchrstcr, stock and share-brokers—W (W and M. Jores Birmingham, hatters—P. Nowell and C. Smith BtS ford, timber-merchants—J. Mason and Co., Brampton, Uerbv c^ masters—W. KoWcr and J. A. L'Enfant Kathhone-place, lithoimpiuo printers—J. F. andVV.Peters,Drury-lane, tobacconLsts—H.Loveaadj Evan.s, Ba.singh;dl-ttre't, factors—J. Towell and.I. Kendle,lvmg'sL™iL merchants—W. H. Robinson and G, Sparks, Northampton, carucntS and builders—E. Gluver and Co., Walton, Stafford, victuallers—C D Hays and Co., Mcriton's-wharf, Bemiondscy, so far as rcgartlfj,^™ —J. Gough and T. S.-nith, Kidderminster, earpet-manufacturcrs-R. D. and U. Fretwell, Gainsborough, Lincoln, tallow-chimdlers—G. «m B. Maltby, Nottingham, wine aud spirit-merchants—It. T. Stoifev and G. D. Smith, Scarborough, linen and woollen-draiiei-s—a. Cm/ bum and Co., Oiiorto, mercliants so far as regards n. l)iuiioi>-<;' Briscoe ;md Co., Monte Video and Buenos Ajtcs, so far as regartsG' Beley-T.Waiiams and T. A. Knight, Liverpool, estate and commisl  sion-agents—A. ard J. Parker, Kendal, miUinere—.1. Tovkington jmi R. Taylor, Ashton-under-Lyne, nulway contractors—W. Watford and Co., Cliclmsford,l.iml«irs—J.B^k, andCo.,Huddcrsticld,woollm  ri-ington  , Old Biuiey, carriers.  Co., CUclmstora, Lanters—J. Hrook, jun, and Co., Huddersticld, wooUm cloth-nu-rchants—J. Edens and W. Clarke, Northampton, .shoe-manu fiicturers—Ackers and J. Daries, Wari-ington, glass-nuinuiaeturm —R. Parker and G. E. Beane, New Inn,  PRICE OF SUGAR.  Tlie average price of sugar, the pi-oduce of British pos.<essioiig la America, by the returns made in the week ending the 3nl ofFcbniarv is 34s. .lid. i>er hundred weight; that of the Mauritius is 3as. 2i per hundred weight; that of the Eiist Indies is 36s. »^d. per hundred weight, and the average price of the three descriptions, jointly coa-putiid and each exclusive of duty, is 35s. l{d. per hundred weight.  Commission .sign'et) hy the Queen". Ea-st Kent Regiment of Militia.—Charles Winter, Esq late Captain in tlie 60th Regiment of Foot, to be Adjutant.  Commission sigxeu my Louds-Lihutenant. County of Oxford.—Richard Plantagenet Campbell Gren ville Marque.ss of Chandos to be Deputy Lieutenant.  The Countj' of Kent.—West Kent Regiment of Militia.— Captain Thomas Gybboii Monypenny to be Major, vice Dalison re.signed ; Captain Thomas Twisden Hodges to be Major, vice Bingham, resigned ; Ensign Maximilian Ham mond Dalison to be Captain, vice Tyssen, resigned ; Frede rick Francis James Morrice, Esq., to be Captain, vice Baldwin, resigned ; George Perkins, Esq., to be Captain vice Monypenny, promoted; Montagu Herbert Jenner, Esq to be Captain, vice T. T. Hodges, promoted ; James Coveneyl Gent., to be Lieutenant, vice Richard Hodges, commuted his half-pay ; Charles Gerrard King, Gent., to be Lieutenant, vice How, deceased ; Robert Thomas Gybbon Gybbon Monypenny, Gent., to be Ensign, vice Potter, resigned ; John Maryon Wilson, the younger, Gent., to be Ensign, vice Dalison, promoted ; Wüliam Sankey, Gent., to be Surgeon, rice Sexty, deceased.  East Kent Regiment of Militia.—Ensigri Wm. A' gustus Munn to be Captain, rice Edward Henry Darell, resigned ; Charles Alfred Mount, Gent., to be Lieutenant, vice Pajme, resigned; Walter Leith, Gent., to be Lieutenant, rice Baker, resigned; Henry Maxwell, Gent., to be Lieutenant, rice Cumming, promoted ; Theodosius Abbott, Gent., to be Ensign, rice Love, promoted ; James Abbott, Gent., to bo Ensign, vice Perrott, promoted.  liBBerks.—Royal Berkshire Regiment of Militia.—Lieutenant Edmund AATieble to he Captain, vice Bacon, promoted ; Henry Pole, Gent., to be Lieutenant, vice Wheble, promoted.  County of Perth.—Royal Perthshire Militia.—Captain Robert Graham, late Captain in the 68th Regiment, to be Captain, rice John S. Men/.ies, resigned ; Fletcher Norton Menzies, Gent., to be Captain, vice Archibald Butter, resigned; James Isdale, Gent., to be Lieutenant, vice Duncan Robertson, deceased.  County of Caithness—Ross-shire, &c., Militia.—Temple Frederick Sinclair, Esq., to be Captain, vice John Sinclair, resigned ; Jeffrey Canning Laing, Gent., to be Lieutenant, vice Alexander Henderson, resigned.  Whitehall, Jantary 28, 1846. The Lord Chancellor has appointed Thomas Ampblett, of Sutton Coldfield, in the county of Warwick, Gent., to be a Master Extraordinarj- in the High Court of Chancorj-.  B.iNKRVPTCY SUPERSEDED. Jons PrcKi.rs. Pi-eston, Lancaster, cotton spinner. John SMnii, Crescent Jewin-street, Cripplegate.  BANKRUPTS.  John Robkuts, Kidderminster, clothier, Feb. 13, at half-past one, and March 20, at twelve, at the Court of Bankruptcy, London. Ofilciai assignee, Mr. .\lsager. Solicitors, Messrs. Cox and Co., Sise-lane, Bucklersbury, London.  Sami-el Noli.fh, Dcbenham, Suffolk, ean icr, Feb. 12, at one, and March 20, at eleven, at the Court of Bankruptev, London. Official assignee, Mr, Whitmore. Solicitor, Mr. Buchana'n, Basiiighall-street lion. Fa-iLNCiB Hf.niiy Nekuium, New Bond-street dre.ssing-case maker, Feb. 17, at one, and .March 20, at half-past one, at the Court of Bankruptc}-, London. Official a.ssignee, Mr. rcnnell. Solicitor, Mr. Fisher, Veriiliun-buUdings, Gray's-inn.  Riciiari) Cii.vui.ks TvnxF.R, Houndsditch, caiTienter, Feb. 12, at eleveru and March 20, at twelve, at the Court of Himkruptev, London. Official assignee, Mr. Belcher. .Solicitors, Messrs. Norton and Co., New-street, Bishopsgate.  Rodert Gc.vk, Clare, Suffolk, com dealer, Feb. 13, at half-past eleven, and March 20, at one, at the Court of Bankruptev, London. Official assignee, Mr. PenneU. Solicitors, .Alessrs. Hughes and Co., Charles-street, City-road.  JoiLv WiLij.vM Frost, Great Tower-street, coffee dealer, Feb. 13, at three, and March 20, at half-past eleven, at the Court of Bankruptev, I>ondon. Official as,signce, Mr. Belcher. Solicitors, Mes.si-8. Shearman and Co., Great Tower-street  WiLUAM Stockbhidof, Wandsworth, tobacconist, Feb. 17, and March IS, at twelve, at the Court of Bankruptev, I^ndon. Official a-ssignec, Mr. Bell, Coleman-street-buildings. 'SoUcitoi-s, Messrs. Lawrence and Co. Old Fish-street.  j0sf.ph Hkkry Nock, High-street Poplar, outfitter, slopscllcr, dealer and chapman, Feb. 12, and March 17, at twelve, at the Court of Bankruptcy, London. Official assignee, Mr. Turquand, Old Je-my-chambers; solicitors, Messrs. Hodgson and Co., Lincobi's-inn-fields.  Ai.exa-vder I.n-ou.s, Portsea, draper, Feb. 17, at eleven, and March 25, at one, at the Court of Bankruptev, London. Official a-srignec, .Mr. Johnson, Basinghall-street; solicitors, .Messrs. Soles and Turner, Aldermanbury.  Geouoe Duckham, Merthvr Tydfil, butcher and publican, Feb. 20 at eleven, and March 20, at twelve, at the District Comt of Bankruptcy, Bristol. Official assignee, Mr. Acraman, Saint Agustine's. place, Bristol; Solicitor, Mr. Hassell, Saint Stephen's-avenue, Bristol John Whttf., St. Benet's-place, Gracechurch-street, -wine-merchant Feb. 14, at eleven, and March 14, at two, at the Court of Bankruptev, London. Official assignee, Mr. Green, .Udermanburv, City: solicitor. Mr. E}Te, Bond-court Walbrook. ■ < >  .John Bumridof. and John Bvrbridge, aerkenwell, Cabinet Makers, Feb. 11 and Xfarch 14, at one, at the Court of Bankruptcy, I/)ndon. Official Assignee, Mr. Follett 2, Sambrook-court, Ba-smghall-street. SoUcitor, Mr. Macphail, Wilmington-  Charlys Movi e,^Tiitechurch, Salop, Linen and Woollen Draper, Feb. 20 and March 13, at eleven, at the Manchester District Com t of Bankniptcy, Manchester. Official .Usignee, Mr. R. P. Hobson, Man-ch^ter. Solicitors, Reed and Co., Fridav-street, London,  and Messrs. Sale and Co., Manchester. "  Edwa^ White B.^ter, Warwick, Ironmonger, Feb. 18 and March 16, at eleven, at the Bhiningham Di.strict Court of Bankruptev Birmmgham. Official A^ignee, Mr. T. Bittleston, Birminghaji: ^hcitors Mr. Hmlgson, Bu-mmgham ; and Messrs, Vincent and Co Temple, London. '  FE-tscis Wabu, Batley, Yorkshire, ragmorehant, Feb. 19, at eleven,  MEDICAL  NEWS.  Small Pox in Dekhyshire.—Almost throughout the Peak, this fearful disease is making terrible ravages. In many villages there is scarcely a house free from the malady.  Small Pox in Dundee.—In consequence of the appearance of this disease in an aggravated form, the directora of the Royal Infirmary have resolved that the Vaccine Establishment should be open two days in the week, instcadef one as heretofore, as in consequence of the great ncgloet on the part of parents, in not availing themselves of the great advantages of vaccination, the fatal disease is rapidly in. crcasing.  Small Pox in Exeter.—The mayor has issued strict injunctions to the police to take into custody the great number of persons infesting the streets of the borough, carrying about children afflicted with the small pox, and expressed his intention of indicting them for the misdemeanor.  Medical Missionaries.-Dr. Hobson, of the medical profession, who has resided for a ^eat number of years ia China, addressed a numerous audience in Sunderland, lart week, in reference to Christian missions there. The doctor stated that if missionaries about to m out to China, where the medic;il art is little known, would cultivate a knowledge of the theory and practice of melieine, thev would acquire great advantages over those not possessing the knowledge.  Public Hf,alth in the i-art Quartee.—The Quarterly Returns of the Registrar General, which, thanks to the indefatigable exertions of William Farr, Esq., are now kept with scientific exactness, are obtained from 115 districts, sub-divided into 576 sub-districts. Thirty-four districts are placed under the metropolis, and the remaining 84 district» comprise, with some agricultural districts, the princi] towns and cities of England. The population in these tricts was 6,579,693 in 1841  The mortality in the last quarter of 1845 was much lower than is usual, for only 39,178 deaths were registered, which is less by 14,740 than the number (43,918) registcretl in the corresponding quarter of 1844; and 2,357 less than the average of the corresponding quarter of seven previous yeais —notwithstanding the increase of the population at the rate of about 1-74 per cent, annually.  A fall of the temperature of the air, from 45 dcgiws (oí or 5 degrees below the freezing poiat (32 dej^ccs) of water, destroys from 300 to 500 lives in the metropohs. It produces the same result on a large scale all over the countnj. Nor is it to be wondered at that a great change of tho heat of the air which we breathe and live in, should have such an cffect In the followii.g table the deaths returned by the rqps-trars for each year are given :—^Deaths registered in lió districts in the years—  1838.......... 162,867 1839.......... 162,605  1840.......... 171,694 1841.......... 160,733  1842.......... 161,948 1843.......... Ki.'VM  1844.......... 167,708 1845......... 16.5,789  In the first three years there were 497,166 deaths; in the last three years 496,698. The population increased in the districts, from which returns have been procured, about 1-74 (nearly I4) per cent, annually, in the intervals of the last census, and the excess of births over deaths has continued ; so that it may be safely assumed that the numbers living have gone on increasing at the same rate—about 9" per cent, in five years, from the middle of 1839-40, to the middle of 1843-45. Now, the deaths, instead of increasing with the population 9- per cent., and consequently amounting to 541,960, in the last three years were 496,698—less bv 45,262 than if the rate of mortality, which prevailed in the three years 1838-40, had been sustained. The improvement may, perhaps, be partly accounted for by, other circumstances ; but, as far as can be seen at present, it is fairly ascribable to the partial removal of nuisances from large towns, to some increase of employment, and, we may liope, con.scquent amelioration iu the condition of the great body of the people in the dense town districts of the kingdom. But an epidemic generated in this or any neighlwur-ing population may speedily reverse the results of the tables, and carrj- off the thousands of lives that appear to have been spared and saved. .  Pavper Lunatic Asylum.—A large and influential number of gentlemen connected with the county of Glamorgan have recently met for the purpose of originating such an establishment as the above, and there can be Uttle doubt that, by the joint efforts of the humane and influenüal 0 the adjoining countics, an asylum of the nature rcqmred wiU shortly be erected. It is understood that the propose asylum will not cost the countj- more than a farthing wthe pound per annum. In the county of Glamorgan alone, tUere are upwards of 170 pauper lunatics, 54 of whom havetne benefit of proper medical treatment in an asylum.  The PuiiLic Health in liveepool.-The cor^ration  survey has shown that there were lately in Liverpool pansn  2,420 ceUars, with probably 10,000 inhabitants, absolutely wt. Water and the fluid contents of ces.spools dram mto these wretehed abodes, and if not received into wells thev cover the floors. Mr. Samuel Holme states in his report, th-xt ne had to walk on bricks across the flooded floor of a ceUar, w the straw litter on which a poor woman was laid, who nau been confined only a few days. He saj-s "this is by no means an e.vtraordinary case," for it would beeasytonnu hordes of poor creatures liring in cellars, which are alinost b id and as offensive as chamel houses. Every medical man in Liverpool, who has been in the habit of visiting the poor, can verify this statement; indeed, it is wcU known that a hea%-y shower of rain has had the effect of forcing W fluid contents of the cesspools through the kitchen floor of even a weU-built house, so as to coyer it j the depth of three inches with putrid fluid ; jma sickness has followed as a consequence. The whole 01 tne town, including the enormous additions which have receu j been made, has been built after this manner, and the con«. Quences in the poorer districts arc deplorable. ,  MeDIC.VL CHARITIES.-lREL.vnd.-In COMCqUCnCC »  Lord Clancarty's motion for a committee of tbc nouse Lords, to inquire into the state of the medical meeting of the county of Clare MccUcal Association fi^ been called by their secretarj-. The subject is 0 grcai ^^ portance, and interesting, not only to the .members o ^ medical profession, but to everj- class of society, tne well as the poor._  The Habitations of the "Poor.-Ycsteijr-Mr. Wakley, M.P., coroner, held an inquest at tlic si^ the Duke of York, Chiswick New Town, on the boay William Maihiws, an infant chüd, four months old, rc^p^^ ing whose death various reports were in "rculanoni neighbourhood. The coroner, who had vaewed the owi) his way to the inquest-room, told the jury to not to go all at once into the room of the house m street, where the parents of the deceased child (the coroner's) weight caused the floor to .shake miai ^ and he recommended that not more than two should en Mr. Wakley said he had never seen such a pwc  ui  once. ivir. waKieysaia ne nau ne>ei 1,1 live in a  his life, and he wondered how human beings couin "> place where the streets were neither paved nor cleanse . where neither houses nor streets had the slightest On their return, the ju^- said the place „"^¿"horatc  but that the parish officers would do nothing to ame ^ the evil. The coroner asked Mr. Dodsworth, »c, who made a post-mortem examination of the do j ^ ^^^ chüd, if there was not a great deal of illness twre^ ^^^ Djdsworth said, the place was in a most drea^tuJ sw , the fatality would n i doubt be very great, „ as  ately the streets were open at each end. 1 nt " h . ^^ then proceeded with, when it appeared that tne ^ ^^^ ^ the son of a porter at a beer-shop, whose wages ^u^ ^^^^ week, eleven of which he gave to his wife. ua^rcn  never been weU from its birth, and very fe^."* «„ndav in the neighbourhood were. On the morning w ^^ last, the deceased was found dead, about four 0 cioi , mother's arm, in bed. Mr. Dodsworth deposed t^« ^^^ were no marks of riolence on the oooy vff ® "!?„e<tion of generally healthy, but there was conaderabie roi „ , the braii, which was the cause of death, arising, he ne^^^ ^^^  from natural causes. The coroner said he was pi . • sake of the parents, the reports were medical  jury returned a verdict in accordance >wtn  jury evidence,   

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