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Iron (Newspaper) - October 28, 1876, London, Middlesex 554 were erected at Witton Park, and their owners, Messrs. Bolckow and Vaughan contracted with the Grosmont mines for a supply of 12,000 tons yearly for some years, so that, practically, a third of the furnaces in the north of England were supplied with ironstone from the Grosmont district in 1848, whilst in the following year the area supp lied was enlarged by the supply of ironstone from South Cleveland to the Consett ironworks. After this period, the South Cleveland mines were dwarfed by the opening out of the limitless resources to the north. Taking up a working which had been commenced near the coast, at Skinningrove, Messrs Bolckow and vaughan followed up the search for ironstone, and eventually discovered the main seam at Eston. The natural result of this discovery was to cause the less easily accessible, and consequently dearer, ironstone at Grosmont and the neighbourhood to be less inquired for, as the attention of ironmasters was transferred to the utilisation of the beds to the north. Still, however, the chief of the workings in the older district were continued, and even to a considerable extent. The mines, it is true, between Grosmont and Sleights, of the Eskdale Ironstone Company, suspended working; but when, in 1859, Bewick's work on the Cleveland ironstone was written, three sets of mines were then being worked in the Grosmont district-those of the Whitby Stone Company, of Mrs. Clark, and of the Birtley Iron Company. Mr. Bewick states that the annual output of these mines was about 70,000 tons-the mines of the Whitby Stone Company and of Mrs. Clark yielding, in equal proportions, about 60,000 tons, and the remainder being contributed by the mines of the Birtley Iron Company. At the latest period for which there are any official returns, the mines working in the district whose historical connection with the rise of the Cleveland Iron Trade has been thus glanced at were the Esk Valley, the Eskdale-side, the Glaisdale, and the Grosmont and Birtley mines. Their actual and estimated yield was : Esk Valley, 7500 tons; Eskdaleside, 20,544 tons; Glaisdale, 8000 tons; and Grosmont and Birtley, 105,723 tons ; which, as compared with the output of the year previous, 1873, was a slight decrease; but, as compared with that for ten years ago, was nearly double. It is thus apparent that, although the demand for the southern ironstone varies, it is far above that attained in what might be considered the period when it had no competition in Cleveland. At the present time two of the smaller of the mines-the Glaisdale and Eskdaleside mines-are not now working, but the chief of the mines continue. It may be added that about i860 two furnaces were erected at Beckhole, near Grosmont, for the smelting of the local ores ; that these, with a later addition, have been successfully carried on, and that at Glaisdale, a little further northward, three other furnaces were erected, which, however, worked more precariously, and are now out of blast. The two seams of ironstone commencing near Grosmont are the pecten and the avicula bands- the former consisting of 3 feet of ironstone, but divided in the middle by a bed of shale above a foot thick, whilst the avicula band is separated from the pecten by fully 30 feet of shale, and it embraces 4^ feet of ironstone and 2 feet of shale. The union of these two bands, further north, gives the main Cleveland seam. A section of the main seam at Grosmont, from an actual survey by Mr. Joseph Bewick, commenced with a layer of ironstone 6 inches thick, continues down to over 20 feet in layers of ironstone and shale alternately-the former varying from 4 inches to 20 inches, and the latter from 19 inches to close upon 4 feet. Blue shale, 4 feet thick, then intervenes, after which the pecten scam is reached with its interlineation of shale; afterwards 29 feet of shale and blue shale follows, with a few inches of nodular ironstone and ironstone interspersed. The avicula seam is then reached, blue shale follows, and 9 inches of nodular ironstone brings the total strata to 69 feet 2 inches. A comparison of this with a section of the main seam at Eston, which shows in 20 feet, a main ironstone bed of 13 feet, then blue shale 5 feet thick, and again, ironstone 2 feet thick, will at once furnish some reason for the growth of the ironmining industry at the northern part of Cleveland, and the comparatively stationary character of them in the south. In nature of working, and in the yield of iron, the difference between the two portions of the district is not great. JAMES LICK, The California Millionaire and Philanthropist. OUR esteemed contemporary, the Mining and Scientific Press of San Francisco, in its last number to hand gives a memoir of the late Mr. J. Lick, from which we make the following summary, not because the latter was a millionaire or even a philanthropist, either of which would be sufficient to distinguish this worthy man from the common herd, but which Iron is not required to do, but because of his great bequests to science, the fine arts, the mechanical arts, to trade and technical education. Tames Lick, the great philanthropist, whose name is famous for his gifts to science and charity, died at San Francisco on the morning of October 1st, at the age of eighty years. He conversed cheerfully of his approaching death, his thoughts being chiefly centred on the execution of his will, as expressed in the deed of trust, and his conversations related principally to the consummation of his public benefactions. The only regret with which he surrendered his life was that he was not permitted to see his various projects carried out. Although Mr. Lick had been a resident of California for many years, he was very little known even in San Francisco, being a man of eccentric and peculiar habits and averse to mixing witli his fellows. When, however, a few years since, he suddenly announced his intention of giving his immense fortune to scientific and charitable objects, his name and fame was spread abroad through the land, and no Californian was better known abroad than James Lick. The money which he had accumulated during his long life was given to a board of trustees, who were to carry out the plans devised by the donor on broad and generous principles. The philanthropist has taken occasion to change the board of trustees several times, which led some persons to believe that he had repented of his resolution, but in each instance the property was turned over to a new board. He was considered an eccentric man, but surely the eccentricity which leads a millionaire to divest himself of property valued at $5,000,000, and give it, during his lifetime, to the people among whom he lived, is to be commended, not censured. This he did, and whatever might have been his idiosyncrasies, his varying moods or temper, the crowning act of his life shows that the heart was in the right place, and that his fortune was bestowed in accordance with long-cherished convictions and matured plans. Mr. Lick was a man whom even those nearest to him did not understand or appreciate. He never had credit for the sterling qualities he possessed. For presenting a biographical sketch of James Lick the materials are meagre. He lived in seclusion, and even when engaged actively in business pursuits was little known, even to those with whom he was brought into contact. He was bom August 25th, 1796, in Fredericksburg, Pennsylvania. He was a descendant of one of the Revolutionary fathers, William Lick, who emigrated from Germany to America previous to the war of Independence, in which he took an active part. James Lick was taught the trade of a cabinet maker and carpenter, and served for awhile in a pianoforte manufactory in Baltimore, Maryland. His restive spirit, however, attracted him in 1820 to Buenos Ayres, and there he remained for twelve years, accumulating by industry and his speculative insight the good round capital of $40,000. For a season Mr. Lick returned to Pennsylvania, and seriously bent himself toward establishing a manufactory of pianofortes in Philadelphia, but after leasing ground and erecting buildings he gave up the project and returned to Buenos Ayres. Matters were there not to his liking, and he is heard of next at Valparaiso, in Chili, where commerce and pianos gave him occupation for a few years. From Chili he went to Peru, and there devoted himself to his business in cabinet work and pianofortes for ten or eleven Years. Mr. Lick arrived in San Francisco in 1847,having with him his entire wealth, amounting to the sum of $30,000. He invested all his capital and earnings in real estate. The most promising portion of the city in those days was then what is known as North Beach. Most of Mr. Lick's investments were made in that locality, and owing to the subsequent abandonment of that section as a business centre, advanced but little in value. He extended his investments, however, to other parts of the peninsula which have since become the very heart of the great city. Then, the lots ne purchased were mere sand dunes, and cost him but a trifle. The lot on which the Lick house now stands is said to have been bought by him for an ounce of gold. All the city property, outside of North Beach, in which Mr. Lick invested, multiplied in value rapidly and built up the immense fortvine which he in later years enjoyed. He also invested money in Santa Clara and Los Angeles counties, purchasing in the latter county a portion of the Rancho de Los Felis and the island of Santa Catalina. With the exception of the Lick house lot and the property in Santa Clara, Mr. Lick was rather conservative iu the matter of improvements. The structure which bears his name is, however, one of the most notable edifices in the city, and at the period of its erection was far in advance of the times. The property at Santa Clara he improved for his own residence, and, on a piece of land near San Jose, erected a flour mill, in which he took great interest, and on which he lavished about $200,000, almost all the woodwork in the same being of the best mahogany. After a lifetime spent in the pursuit of riches, on the 2nd of June, 1874, Mr. Lick executed a deed of trust in which he divided nearly all his vast fortune for public benefactions, and appointed a board of trustees. Estimates of the estate at that time placed its value at $5,000,000 ; but as the deed has since been nullified, we append a resume of the donations of the last trust deed as it now stands. To his son, John Henry Lick, he gives $150,000; to his other relatives, $21,000; Orphan Asylums, $50,000; the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals of San Francisco, $10,000! monuments to relatives, $20,000; Ladies' Relief Societies, $125,000; Free Baths, $150,000; monument to F. S. Key, author of the " Star Spangled Banner," $60,000; the sum of $100,000 is to be expended in a group of bronze statuary at the City Hall, which shall represent by appropriate designs and figures the history of California; Mechanics' Institute of San Francisco, $10,000 for the purchase of mechanical and scientific works ; the sum of $540,000 to found and endow an institution to be called "the California School of Mechanical Arts," the object and purpose of which shall be to educate males and females in the practical arts of life, such as working in wood, iron and stone, or any of the metals* and in whatever industry mteOigent mechanical skill now is or can hereafter be applied; sach institution to be open to all youths bom in California. The sum cf $700,000 for the purpose of purchasing land, and constructing and putting up on such land, a powerful telescope, superior to and more powerful than any telescope ever yet made, with all the machinery appertaining thereto and appropriately connected therewith, or that is necessary and convenient to the most powerful telescope now in use, or suited to one more powerful than any yet constructed; and also a suitable observatory connected therewith. This is in charge of the Regents of the University of California, and the telescope and observatory are to be known as the " Lick Astronomical Department of the University of Ca^oPM." -After making th latter was situated 20 feet from the chimney. To understand how this happened, it is necessary to state a few additional facts. The chimney was provided with an electric conductor on one side, and a coil, which united with the conductor near the ground, where together they were bound to an iron rod and passed through a well of water, situated near the side of the foundation, 7 feet square and 2 feet deep, and thence down about 8 feet into the earth. Now, into this well comes the drainage of the works, and, further, the discharge pipe from a water-closet, and it was found, on investigation, that although the pipe actually discharging into the well was of stonewate, yet, further back, it was in connection with one of cast iron. This latter pipe, being midway between the conductor and the gas composition tubing, must have served as a vehicle for the electricity, which must then have completed its circuit by the gas-pipe, which was thereby melted, and, the gas escaping, caused the fire. To prevent the recurrence of such an accident the cast-iron pipe was removed and one of stoneware substituted. All now went well till three years ago, when the chimney was again struck by lightning at 150 feet from the top, 30 bricks being then dashed out. Again an examination was instituted and it was found that a separation had been effected between the conductor and the rod of iron with which it was bound where it passed through the well at the bottom. This separation had probably happened before the accident occured and so possibly caused it. A new rod 10 feet long and passing 8 feet into the earth was now substituted for binding the conductor and coil together, and the whole was well tallowed to prevent oxidation, and was finally enclosed in a wooden box, of which the side of the chimney made the fourth. But a year ago the chimney was once more struck by lightning on the opposite side to that which was last attacked, that is on the side along which descends the conducting rod. On this occasion a part of the coping stone wa> knocked off and Mr. Joseph Townsend impressed with the necessity of making some material change in the whole system of protection from lightning, is now providing the chimney with an apparatus which it is to be desired will fulfil its object. This arrangement may be described in a few words. On the top of the coping stone are fixed four equidistant rods about 3 inches wide and 1 inch thick ; these terminate in stars or arrow-head-, and above them in the centre ascends a rod 20 feet long and higher than the rest, terminating in 1 double arrow-head. All these arc properly connected with bands of iron, and are placed in good communication with the electric conductor and coils. As may be readily imagined, there is some difficulty and not a little danger in raising such masses of iron to the height of 470 feet, but still more difficult and dangerous is it to construct the apparatus at the top, and fix it and bolt it together as is required. For besides the exposure of the workman to the gases from the chimney, the atmosphere is often highly electric at that height, and freedom from sudden wind cannot be ensured. The construction is nevertheless approaching completion, and the whole of it has been dons by one man, Mr. R. Hall. He is, perhaps, the only man who would undertake such work, and yet he does it with scarcely a sense of danger, an.l certainly with none of fear. It seems as easy to him to walk about and work on the coping stone as it is to many of us to walk about on the ground. In concluding this sketch, which we hope may prove of some interest to manufacturers who have tall chimneys attached to their works, we would merely point out that not a little success of the working of an electric conductor, depends upon the way in which it is sought to distribute the electric current over the earth. It is not sufficient simply to pass the rod down so many feet into the ground, but it should terminate preferably in a plate or sheet of iron so as to present a good surface for diffusion. NICKEL. OUR contemporary, La HouilU, extracts the following article on nickel in New Caledonia, from a paper published in that colony :- " Nickel has now so much importance in our colony, that we intend to give an article on it every month, so as to keep our fellow colonists informed of the value of their produce in the markets of Europe, and, in the second place, to give really true accounts of the quantities exported, the number and value of our mines, and the kind of people we are. After doubting for a long time of the reality of the discoveries made near the end of 1874 at Mont d'Or, about eighteen and a-half miles from Noumea, our people at length began to explore for nickel with great zeal and activity. The presence of ore was proved at a large number of places in our island, and people began to believe that mines might be opened anywhere and everywhere, and that we were about to enter on a period of unkmited production. Fears were entertained of a deficiency of ships to take the ore away, and it was imagined that Europe and America together would hardly consume all that was going to be raised. But these dreams and exaggerations were soon over; and the present position of affairs is that the total amount exported in the course of the past fourteen months-i.e., from the date of the earliest extraction to the present day-is 2000 tons. The Boa Kaine mine sends away from Canala to Germany every month about 125 tons; the Bel-Air mines at Ouaillon have raised 1200 tons, of which 160 tons were sent to London at the beginning of 1875. In April, 1876, 550 tons were shipped for Havre per the Buffon, and in May 430 tons by the Noitveau-Mondelli. The remaining mmes, all told, including the Fatma mine, have not sent away more than an aggregate of 100 tons. About the end of next month (August ?) 550 tons will be shipped on board the Indien for Havre. That is the whole truth about the heavy shipments of which we have heard such varying accounts.
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