Friday, August 4, 1820

British Press

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British Press (Newspaper) - August 4, 1820, London, Middlesex liiiioj]r,([ Vosilively the Ia�t Nighj:^�.,Madame Ve.t,i8' appearance this Season. Bfe iwffermeathei^bpiito Gi)rtic"Siiteft:fi .failed . . , After irliich, TriE'BEGGAR'S OPlEllA. t Colli.JJai;heatb^Ma,danie,.V|sstris.{bt-r 12th.appearance in ��hai Characfer; iod oh tfiia Slagej; Peacbumv Mr. terry ; :LockH,:Mi;.>yininn)B5 Filcb, Mr.: J-Rureell. ftiilly Peschqm, '3Uus R.'Cqr^i (^^^^ (ho; English..Sta^^e}; Mr�.g)Sacfitim;-!tJra.Peafce; LucyLockit, Afrs.C. Kentble. -, = ^ " .,-T5 nol�d,e-�i�h/.lheiG6rtidly of' ' THftEE WEEKS AFTER MABRlAGE. > �^ir.<3hBrle� :Raq)feJj JW*.J!da( ,'4lw.:'P�m:ei'BrwityV Sire. Bakerj Nanq^i Place* for,tbeSoxe�to,be taken ofMfl Massiogbam; at ;�beTheatrew;:  ^ l'i?---� ni �  � .! To-raorrowv The Jealous tVife, mthRbsiiia. A-ne�r,.C*n9edy, is<,in l.-pfeparatiuu, antt .will be speedily produced.:,:,,-..-,. ,i;-,,'ir.,... ' THJEATilC WYaL, EwisjLlSH! OPERA-HOTSEj � � "STRAND,- ,,, .  -. npHIS . �KEiv:N WoMt�r, Mr. WilKinsou; Knobbs^ Mi-. T. P; Cooke. .iEmmd,-^ Misd I.-8leveiison; Mrs. Kild^eiry, Mrs. . the epaciangiSataoit.has.been .again.tastefully fflled up with a new design, representing nn lllumiaated Orieiilal Garden,, an^.wiil be opeoed^as usual' at'Eight<q'Clock, for (he, admiUance :df .the^econd Price, which eommeDces at ISiiie.' � � ' " , . ,, .. . To.-morrbw,The Blind Boy-Belles without Beaux-and Amateurs and Actors^:-----...... On Monday next wi|l be produced an entirely new Romantic Melo-dramajfonoded do the celebrated Tale called The Vampire! � r   . SORREVTHEATREi, THIS. EVENING^ vFKlDAY, Angust Ai an4 TO-MORRQVy, SATURDAY^ will be (iresented an entirely new Comic ..Rurle.tia^with new- and setecled nlusic, called" ' , '' f � V. � ,' ' VVHE&LS WltHK^r WftEELS. Col. Saibville^ Mr.i^ajhei; Mr. ieiRird, Mc.Ben|;oiieli; 1jiflenivfM*J'W^8ft;;C6l)neli--MiKWti*i|lw &rd,.Miss;Pboie5vMarSa,\MiBsVCdti�ra^^^ i ' � ^ Afrerwbiob(Ut1t timeihsse l4�<ySea9isns) a granai'�ge�dar<f ... Melo-drame^in'lbr*;^ short Acts, under the title of - ... 3 RICHARD TBJE FIRST., To conclude 'wiifi a PaMic'Reading of Mr. T. Dibdin's favourite'PanloraliniicExIravaganiatic Burletta, with alle-ifaiioosAtfd fiddiilb'bs, cniled HARLEQUIN HOAX; OR, A PANTOMIME PROPOSED. .,Boxes, 4s.r^Pil, 2.s.-i-Gallery, Is. . Drtors dpeii at Ba^^past Five, begin at Half-past Six. Half-price at Hatf^pSst Bight. Next Tociday will be revived the Mielo-drame called The Abbot of-San the breath dericatel'y; swe^, prevtjat the Tootb-Acbei perfectly cure the Scurvy in the Gums, and niakethemgrqw firm aiid close to the Teeth,-The Essence is particuinrly recommended to" PaVei�t3 and Personi what have the cAre of Children as the greatest preservativeof young and temlelr Teeth.h Npae,j�re genuine ^but'what hinvei the wordsj J..Hemej, Bay|ey,�nd Blew, Cockspur-street," eiigraved in lHe''Siamp.';Prici5 2s!9if. eacli. ' , ' BAVLEYViTRlJE ESSENTIAL SALT of LEMONS, for taking lottiSpots'and'St'ainBou-tuf Lace and Lined; Thr genuine iasigned-.f' W.';B�yIey"' on- the> Box and Wrsppeif.' Also bis SGO.URINCf DROP3, for faking Grease out of Silk, Sloff,'Wo!oHen;ClRth, &c. price Is. each. V^tUTABi;^ POMMADE DitlNE, price 3s. 6d. the Sold, Wholesnle and Retail, by Bayley and Bleir, Per- [: fpmm,(CQckspur:StrSet,itpi�4on. , : NOtliiiE tO^t^OSB, IF'^-'od want FAVOtJRITE' � 'oK^fARTlGUtk* NUMBERS. TBISHisQleseoirirtft'tvi'lor Mie Lottery, begS' > Iviveinfcttrei^eBtfnirj! to'arqd*tnt liis best FrieUds, the Public, t|iat thefiNe'V! LoHpry; pojwi&ls of junly: .5,800 Tickets, the whole ofwhich are on sali-, as T. BI^Hjdpea out intend ttfVcserV^iii^f'A^&;as'(^ t^liei'Vis'tfOt^b'N'tVa'wn in Classesi Ad�e�(Jftfs'majp�A^any piWficSlitr (hff^ Numbers, from.N�;r1 jfo^5i6n0, luelosivie ijefj^jrott //is'' �u� rfltHi'iil^b''�(our iUiioiCimf.oaiitieT' �ay ijej tald,; yet' "i/ir hf k[pplying;lTd9Vi^i anil thet/igents Thi'th&;iC6iinirg,'. ilie Niiniber(f^iiiianl�4,npy.,be,dis|>d�5l ,j Aii' j^iffy^tfjigliit^. '>f1HIS EVENING, FRttliAy, A��V't, * ii ORANfi eAtkitiriiprJsiftg' * dincert of Mis'cei-laneoui Music;: At-lW eiid'df the'fii*f/fc<' Wadtim�'Ai^d Mademoiselle S At jthe couduaion ofnhe i Concert, will succeed 'a brll.liant display of Firework?, by 'Sigfromf-Hengler, wheii Madame Saqui,' cumpie'tel'y enve-Joped in nvoliime or6ri(,'irill achietr^e'tter'safplrii^hg EV'ilu-tiona on.the Tight Rope, at iin.elevation of sixty fVetffbm the groiind.  Admission 3s. Bd.-Doors open at Seven, the Concert to begin at Eight a'auck. SECOND EDVTION-NEWROMANCE. TSis. day is publisbed, LOGEjR; or, tba.Eve. of San Sebastian . a Romance, in Ihtce volumes. A black preiais^riff sorrow fills my lieaft; What could a<iiay1ike this prddoce hilt woe ?" Printed for Fearmmi, Library, 170, New Bond-street. Whe^e may be (lad, ., � . : Tlie NEW TALES, containiqg PONTfeFRACT CAS-TL'E,3voIs. \ A COftt!froN�0Wcri.;,*bl'dfeii'iif tfiet:H^AMBER the GUILDHALL of tho-GITY of LONDON, on THURSDAY, tbe 3d day August,  � . JL ed,right(^f ,.tlieSub)ect'ta,.Pelition upon:^y their Lordships, in their: legislative tbaracter, against the proposed Bill of Pa'ins'and Penalties, as contrary to tbe Con. Sfitntioha'f Jitrispruilfhce of England, calculated to lower tlie dignity of~lhe Grown, and IS prove detrimental Id the Liberties, the Peace, anil the Security of the Cuontry. That a Petition be therefore presented to the House of Lords, conformable to the abovi Resulalidiic. ' , . ,.  WOQDTHORPE.; qiiiry; eiamirfattoii,* or Hwc , jiitltitb and 'diKtWenbe ettoi shottjid, ensue, is.,^y jija jm�a^f e'a,'exc!ept by the prevalence �pot qir liiei^�rd�ywi�n cqMy is greplly iucrsaieife . .-^ jured. It was sditl tliat the le^ iliafj Any'oJb^Vcra'ssbT! grrtion of,persons .Qlleriy^ttj who perhaps are niore cuDVic iha iige; The'' a4Hcu1tiirW� flbe^rn Laws, would � .nsition to evade and ^'^^Tril, 6y winch iheiiifi. pttWipiiBteirtst deeply W-'ulioritl* were sttfferiog ;ie;'iiiil lti� IB ihe as. iMdme^ wiitk Cbte -subject, itJlilh .business on, the E^ t;lnor'e"i6a�le tliliit And slarMiAg^tiaeh ibali ba�be�i laleljumade on the Iji^ded^iBlrrertj lhat,i�,^, ei^ anddccupiera of land, 6^tKe petiifons, spe'echeB, and pablicalions icrfvlbs'mtt-chanfs'aHd dihert, respecting IhEr ifestrictions on fureign commerce. � Their � applications to; Parliament are a string of mere abstract propositions, contained in plausible, sdphistitfal,' aud'nrlfntly cdlistritcted sentences, calculated to.delude and mislead those who, through ignorance of such subjects, are incapable of competent dijcriininatidn. These Petilions, and some accompanying speeches of exlraordiDary flippancy, denoxinee^ oar Corn anil our Navigation Laws, the revered and sacred principles of whfch have justly been considered, the 'une_ ai our great preservative against famine, the other as the guardian of our naval prosperity.. It must not be supposed that tlftse observalious are inteuJed to apply to the British merchants generally, than whom a more respectable body_ does not exist, or men of more liberality and gopd sense, hut to the reforming theorists, who would risk the best interests of the stole to gratifyllieit speculations. Tbe object seems to be to cliaiige every ioslilutiou, regulation, hbiI system that has been sanctioned by the experience of ages. Freedom from restriction might indeed benefit and increase the profits of the individual merchant, but it will be at ihe expense of the country at large. Whenever the importation ftdm other countries depresses tbe value, and therefore checks the produce of our own coiiniry, it is most injurious to our resources and to the nation. .Foreign commerce is lieneiicial, when it respects those articlis which cannot be raised at home, lind promotes ihe ex-porlalion of surh produce and manufacture as this country can furnish to advantage. Neither diplomatic negociatiiin, nor treaty, can-secure the admifsioo of our exports in'lo obtain them . T^c ScliB-nii^oiilaiTiii rtojRyMsl^f,i2(?i0!>P,.i, � 1' And varipu^cilJherCiipi^^ -, "f any otl��,Q^e.J�!ege!V, tn this latltrfi-i^fe^TI^^^ Tirken and SJiwejjp^ili^i^ 4, CorubHl.ind f '^wiufirtSsitt-; -i other' countries, when those countries cau cheaper or better elsewhere. The presnmptiuii of seuiling delegates to oppose the de. clarations of hostility against the rcvisnl of Ihe Corn Laws,-aod the opiniuns offered to the Legislature, were most ex-traordinary. Is it not evident that some measure is necessary in'tiiupporl of the Agriculture of tbe country? Is if, not known from the accounts laid before Parliament, that in iRti and 18IS, grain and fluur, to Ihe amount in valu^.nf ?1,(>33,52 To explain, the above-asidrtiun it i?.' necessary to ubsery^,. jthal the quantity Of wheat that caihe' from abioad in iM iyear 1796 amdurtted :Jo!820]38t ijuftrters, and 2eS,86� c<*l, iof-fluur, oiie-fhiidiilJIure than had'ever been limporttdJ Sbeforc, I yel- the^e isaf^jpiily a,.sufficiency: for the ^oitt-jifni^i itioii of lico-ititidi tie for thfrtg-vinti^dliT/s quarters came from llie , ^ Urds :ofjihe jieoph And df that qotoilj .ITSS^S'S ...... .............. j North *f finrtpis umili��(tt(i^bei-#iM l�^'pf^(Mirb--fii^^brgt^ 'sUii." pf^(Mirb--fii^^br|Wl ^i^p- tithes, p6br.rate�, and ��i��^rttt/tiin Jmy delttSiiiiittn df I'^fjl^l!'.?'.-?' ."'5-*lW5?�"?|'.4P3N:.*�n-�'M. er taxci alid assessments iii {fummpn^tfli the rest of the community iJF � THE EDINBOKGH REWfeW" : Mii. ntrWN^s PLAy FOR RELIEVING THE NATIONAL DISTRESS. b.ead, as is suggesfei^, 1.0* .M^gpjfteijly, in thg eedwould ' lo�*er It. Tbe'(ine.1i4n',fc(Ji�iv|,r:?�6ot merely whether they are more oppressed,IbiVt wDeifi�r |^,�gritiilfdre bf the cdwn' Which will be the cerWitijpdn^ttnettce if tillage is'mit eu> courageaaiid-prdlecliSd.ii; i r ,  atlribateid it�brigri)MiIe�fi'8fetofiigil'eiidexlrRVBgai>i rents. 1^ is lo>c wished, thoJ^te^ertsipJysM^,to; te llidie whd'hafi so great;}'b,,if'a'cirily in liiakirig sucb pbserva-tions,l&iid ^are '.of-;he,jv^ry>,(�nsiderable reduction of ren| and retrenchmeiit of. expense which have lakco place in the greater'psii'i'bf'tirt^t Britain 'and Ireland. On the rents'.luCtlands depeiiti s ttiduifabd eiigKgrmeAls and established, distril^utiun (if labour aud comfort, which must give way wiili the rents'themseli'es. And us far as the price df grain is ( oiec^idn froni an overflow pf foreign grain. They did .notuprdpose any thing (hat would laise the price of cofn, biit Ihey prayed fur an fxaminaiiun wbettiei- tlie faW' 'aiiswers the juieuded pur-pose^ >ur uhelher'the Jiinilalioa iioi>^ the'admiaJioii of grain is su6iciently;high qr .opt; and whether, on inquiry aad exaniinatidn, any alieraliou wutjid be found necessary, A more, respectable! bddjr of petitidbei^a never applied to Parliament on ^aity luccasion.,, The peliliuos came from every county and district in Engl)ind; from almost the wbole-of the ogricnltural'popiilatioil-tif'the-kingdom ; yet these Pelitiiioers, thus nqqi^rous antl Ihuft.respectable, have been subjected to a seyere degree of inurtificalion; they have j'tist caOse Id be disgiistedf'by'lbV treatment of their Petitiqu^, by the ffivolqus and.'trifliog manner in which Ihey bave been dismissed. The ilisg'r^refal mode of overruling a deci>ion of the-Ifdiis'e by' tb^ w^eigtit of influence,, if .jt djd, not eocoiirage^llentioo lu the prayer of the Petitions, should at least nave h'?oo neutral, wil| not be forgotten.. Wecaiinol conceive a liiord injudicious policy than that of (bus disgiisting,,llie landowner aud occopier, who bave at no lime deviated frpm the paths of .true loyally and patriotism. The House/ decided geiieHity liiiit tbe Com; mittee- sbuuld/inquire. into ;>be ;.allegatiobs ;' . but the next day, the Cuinmittee was .ius'lrp,cied nut to attend to the prayer ifthe Petit!oii8,'nor "eVen periiiiited to'raake an iqquiry.iatd liieigeBeral'qm^tioKtOfttie averages as applied to the k,ingdu^,a^ large,, but .were restricted to an examination 'of 'abiisM' lii iBe mode of taking the averages -Au tiiariimj^}ff$lfj:;f^\i^i ti" yeHtrfciiOKvwbieti iwuld.npt, s^iisij^bi^^.p^^^ ^elilipnsi S'ocli was the fatal'oppdsllidti, oiii- Pe^liions have experitnc-ad; andtbat opposition iff 111'a great liiiasnre Id be'aitribut. ed to,the potion, that the agrictil|urail qoeslion ia not completely distinct fi-om the commercial. ,It is attempted to mix Ihi compiainis respecliiig foM^n cdniid'erce rtitl'i the case of the agicullurisls,^ with'>whichvlhey have nothing to do, unless those wh,o wish (o promiile a revolution of all. dur aniiienf principles aiiil estabtishrnent mean to propose an absolutely free trade; in coriifi-i-Such a measure would undunbledjy soon reduce the gruwlb of that ar. tide in this rouniry in a deg'ree frightful to contemplate, anil greatly beldu^ what mire tIfeorVs'ts imagine, depriving a large proportion of opr most.u^eful puptilutiun of employment, reiideriirg us pompletely dependant on other countries fur our subsistindei'tanA-tbal deptndeHce fialilc to all Ihe vicissitudes of seasugs, of war,jof caprice, gf iiltei-esl-ed proje'cis and iiolitica^ views of other couiitrieM, Ihe result of which iirt-vitably woliltf be a'liabilily,-to the extreme of fa. mine. A secure and permaueot protecting duly iu all cases, against an overwhelmiuginiportatjou pf ftii'eigu grajii iiud foreign wool; is the ehcoUraueirieiit the agriculturists require. Confidence should by all meansibercsturcd to them. Their cause is so good, and.the interest of the .country is so deeply coucerned, ihaf they should not be dispirited; on the cnu-Irary, Ihey should be eocoufaged by (ha geiiWr'Al feeling of the country and the necesiiity of Ihecise, with firmness to reiterate their applicatiuns, which, when the ohject of Ihem is properly uhderslood, will have'their diie elTert. .4t present Iheir prospects are most uupromising. They are discouraged from a due expenditure of capital, not only fur the permanent improvement of land, but iveu for Ihe ordinary cniirse of husbiindry, by apprehensions.arising from the immense importalioiis of grain and wopl. Unless th� warehousing o'f corn is relioquished, it 'will'he impossible |6 prevent our markets from being igjntted with that article from abroad. Nor will the measures adopted respecting the averages, produce any very esscnlialaud inipoi-tanf benefits. At present foreigners aud traders are allowed to eArich the'msel^Fs'lu the injury yf the British farinefs, and. the. country in general-'fliose who bave not already wasted thejr capital in unpro-(tlablecrtllivatiOb of Ihfe soil,' are'nilhili'aWliig, oir preparing tp withdraw, it. The expense^ aftli|lage. has sorgreslly in-, creased, that if the land capnot be turned to pasiure, by, which many.tbtousands *dilld'b'e'ibrdwn oiif of empliiy-nient,.ihey.will.!|iiid >timucKmi>re,prudent lo sufier the'in-fenor soils to lie waste, rather lhaq inent the.heavy l0H^^of tithes, t'a.^es, pndr.rale)i,'an'd aisis'^tticofs, and run the risk of an inadequttie price for their dit{iA>ledted produce.  The Report was received wiili' mueli'n'pprobation by the meeting, who expressedi ;lhenjs'�lve8'^^fn.�y 'sensibld of the obligations they .were uujer to Lufd.Sliel^eW.lfo^^ his con-tinned' ntleiilion to their interest, and his, exertions iu the cause of agriculture, rtnd of tfie'c'diiutry id general'. The bealih of Mr.,>y,ehb IJair, proposed, liyiMr Ellman,: jun. was drunk i�iih much satisfaction fur bis zeal and aer-vices in the same cause....... � ~ As usuiily veiy little business was tlie fair, but sincdiseVerarpSrct'lii haVS sPld'ffWIi i7|d.-fo I8di per pound, B^d there ,is rfUspii to,expect' tbatfsonie w'fll,,be sold ,still' Itigher. ' � , � _ .  - ' Tlie accditnt'is cdhffr'nied that'scwral'wijdtifffdwers ill' Norfolk ibav^sold.Soutb DowirWdul.sioGe Thiiford fair alia. 9d. per nound; and-some,.cross. breed, be^ween.ihe L^-cesieriaittf "Sb'iVlh';D ave"been''S(j|'d''ai' ft; lirf. per Ipuund. It issupposed ibcje prices are given by tbtSNdrWicb' ' maiiKfaclurers.- > � <- Mr.'Ricardd ii c'ln-iainly.iAutH tbe Reviewers fnr Ihe rlear, explicit, and concise manner in,-which they .here detail his principles of political e.rdndmy;-but be would have, beeH siijl more indebted to iheirt, had Ihey ac-ItBowledged these principles to he bis, and nut attempted to pWsthenkOn therfeSd^rfdir thfeirown. ' Id the' recertt.aud ejtisling Mramble for power between Ihe WMsa and the Tories^ the former bave generally raonopolizeil nearly Ihe.whole scfeoce which has bi-en dis-played fn P'arliameuf, while tbe latter ara not only deplorably fgn'oi'aiil, tml iire even Wpscioua of a total waiit of iuformalldiiviv inanysiil^eelSf'on'Mihich, as Miuistririii il is necessary for their leaders lo<_deeide. . Oii na one subject has Ibis.mddest cpoaciousne^s ofigaqrance iteeu more coinspicn-ously displayed., llian.on.;bal of Puliticai Economy^ on ^hichihe8^-~'~"^'*'-"�^-'' �-- ' ' the iu f dumiiierciat men migliilha'U ample eriiproymentdii I slibjM' of the embaWisgiiiyii'lS <in' fo'i-Vifr trade  and' ... ; Ih Jl ft it rtdsiUintWeiy'lift^eil IHtf nJi^'�btf!iirt&4Sfi}|j#i i u!ul;�oy.;sa<*ifice.of::tlft Jaudediiiitereatui*<nhmeri!i�I'�pei create, or fathei: to augment, their own unpopularity, or whelbrr their prdinpters tiave Veally themselves been de-ceirrd. The Reviewers most nccnrately state, that " In all ihe s^iehces, except those which relate lo nomberand qunn-liiy, a prini:iple is nolbine more than � general rule, ascertained by the process of indoction, from an examination of particular cases. To lay down a principle, therefore, is inerefy to "assert that some one altribule or circnmstance is rommnn to a whole class of phenomena ; and if upon actnal observation, or experiment, this attribute is found pot to be common to the class, the assumed principle must necessarily be erroneous." By this-ju.<il and well-defined rule we shall proceed lo examine some of Ihe principles laid down by the Reviewed. �" In old and advanced cumiliies (say ihey), the great obstacle to the further increase of wealth aod'popqiation is the reduced eiFective power of agricul. lural injluatry, brought on by the necessity of resorting to iu-ferinrsnilsforadditional'supplies of raw produce." We would . ask the Reviewers, to what countries Ihey alluded by the terms " old and advanced!" France is older in civilization than England; but fbe latter has made Ihe most rapid advance in wealth,andi8 undoubtedly Ihe country, Ihe present silua-tionof which the Reviewers intend lo elucidate. That the increase of population causes recourse to be had lo inferior soils, and that ihe cultivation uf inferior soils tends directly to re-dace the prdfitiiof stock,'we most readily admit; but that the present general distress in the British islands arises priuci-pally from this cinse, wei most pointedly deny. During tbe greater part of the wars of the French Revolution, these islands were reduced to depend for subsistence on their oifii production, in a much greater degree than they bad been for the period previous to llie war, or fur that since Ihe peace, took place/' Dai-in? Ihe war Ihe population increased with a rapidity unpreredenled in these islands, a sure proof that wealth was Dot then on the decline; and iu no equal period of pur history was such a rapid advance made in the cultivation of our soil, both by the increased npplirnlion of capital do the inore fertile lands, and by recurrence to soils very inferior fd'wbaf bave been cultivated since Ihe peace. For it seems lu have escaped Ihe Reviewert' cpnsideratioo that-tbe ftrsl breaking up of inferior soils generally renders Ihem very far superior to what Ihey were before, and that continued cultivation often changes them into land of good quality. If therefore during a period of twenty -years uf ..our most exiraordiilary. recurrence from bad lo worse soils for our sufasisleace,. tbia general distress wus not fell, T)6t. � cdnimehced; "at a period when supplies of food frdta � fdreigii cubptries, made it both unoecessary and unprofitable to have further recourse to inferior soils, and continued graciually increasing tbrnugb five years, during which some of the. wdrit lands were annually tbrowu nut of cullivatiun, we must look to some other cause or rauirs for the present prevalent distress, " than Ihe necessity of resorting to inferior soils for additional supplies of raw produce.*^-" From the year 1813 to this of 1820, our climate had not changed ; our sun is as warm ; our admirable machinery fur Ihe abridgment and perfecting of la-hour has in no w,-iy deteriorated.; our working classes bave asyet lost ndthiiig of their wonted industry, eiieigy, and skill," Bodwecei^taiuly do not now cultivate such inferior soils as we did seven years ago, when the breaking up uf commons was at the height; yet in these seven years Ihe country has sunk from prosperity lo a stale of unprece-dented misery, and we conceive that a very adequate and coincident cause may be pointed out as producing this effect, and one whitb would not bave escaped Ihe sagacity of Ihe Reviewers, had it not beeu called into action at the urgent instance of that puUilcal party which the Reviewers have embraced. All piiiitical economists have admitted that taxes laid on labourers must ullimately fall on the capital which employs these labourers, because tbe wages of labour consist iu the necesstaries which the labonrer receives in recompense for his toil, rather than in the money with which he frequently biiys these necessaries ; whatever therefore tends Co enhance the price of those commodities which the labourer consumes, tends,at the same time lo diminish the profit on the stork which employs the labourer. It is also nearly self, evident, lhaf the higher the rale of taxation afiecting income is carried, Ih* lower the rate of profit must become. All' taxes, Iberefore, which are paid, either by the labourer, or by ihe agridulturisf, manufacturer, or merchant, become ultimately diminutions to the profit of stock; and therefore, as taxes affecting the lower and middle classes areaug-mented,sO in proportion Ihe profits on stock must fall, and the encodragement to Vest it in tbe employment of labour, must consequently dintinisb. This ia exactly what has taken place through the urgent inSlanca of Ihe political parly with which the Reviewers act; In 1813, the circnlation was altogether paper, which. ' -----.-----J-i--r .....-, from the lime of the restriction on the Bank of England, hail gradually become depreciated till two pounds money of the Mint, woo Id exchange for about three pounds of fhecir-, culating paper; but as the public burdens (taxes, tithes, and poor rates), amouuting lo about ninety millions, were then . payable id fhi^ depreciated paper, so in fact our public bur-' dens for that year did in reality amoup.t only to about sixty millions of Mint money. In the progress,, however, of our return Id a metallic currency of Ibe old Mint standaid, a regard to its own interest, obliged tlie Bank df England lo narrow its discounts, till its paper should be broufht lo an : equal value with' ifie metal, which might be demanded in ; exchaoge'fdr it; and thus in1820 the pnblic burdens (taxes, , tilbes, and poor-rates}, amounting lo about thirty millions id reality, as well a^ nominally, are in fact about oiie-tbird more considerable than they were in 1813. The proportion also of (he taxes which fall on ilie lower and .middle classes is at present much greater than it was io 1813^ so that we maj^ prdbably not ticfardislantfrdm' Ibe irdtJir,-ittesfimating the ptoportion pf the income derived from capital.employed : in industry, which ia at present absorbed by Ihe payment'of ' public burilerisi at tibotrt double what it w�a in 1813. This we conceive lOrbe a. inncli'more: probable Tsplvtioo of the ( cause <)f the present distress, than tk^ recon^se to Ihe culli-t vafloii d^ lilfei^iir idiU^ wh'ich'bafi; not in fact been had re-: course lo, during tbe last, five years uf Ibis progressive distress. ; Although we perfectly join Ihejleviewers in Ihiokipg that ;. ntflhiftg' eai* BetWftffiJillidbbi WPl!��i>JiJyll>Si9.<|Cvian�iI either by ;wapt of capital^ �r of ^ g|"'tf?-H^'"?^yX,!'?V'0X indastry by tbe wjfcyi ii�;.'moi<i*ui rk; but if $u'rh ^erfidn i^d be -generilly indncml, wesbiMild then'ehter-lifia little ddtt6'l o'f the sucress of Mr, Owei.'s plunt; h,->ving Witnessed life yeri erun'omicsl manner in which a Uiiiu'-rdu* society cap l^efe.-t, clothed, and ludijed, in coni'parisbb of what tbe inliniei.'>ii> ple i uM cost Vben drt.irlieii 'i separate families. The Koviewers v(>ry tiiumph�f.''y re', mark, lhaf " .\Ir. Oweniiideel fancies he can ovrrfcirne ati those di.tficultie^ by the ad.iption of spade cnlriv:it)iiii; but we tell fiim, withndl fear of coiiiradiciiuii, that sp.ide ctitli-vstioii, so fijr from being capable of worliine the miracles lie supposes, is leM profitable than rullivaiiuii by ihe pr Only because experience lias convinced llie farmer that il� plough is the cheapest insiriimenl of prudiicnon, nixf by employing il be obtains a greaier nift pioilnre." Bv Him question and answer, Ibe'RcVirtvers seeni to tliiric lliiil ib-.; Kuhj-cl ii� set at rest. We, however, have here ihe nu^ to difl'er very widely from Ihrm. In a thinly luhjiiiiti! cppntry, such as America, a-here iIih wages i,f hnman IsSonr are high, and where the price and snhsistence of IfurifH mvc low, yutM may perhaps Sometimes pnic'ore the labour of l�-ari'-a.dozcn horses, for as little money a.^ you nonld be iil>li�M'l lo pay for that of one man; "Kh.le i-.i the imift nuj.iiUi"'-. provinces of China the labour irf �iK men csii he prunui-.f, not only at tbe price of Hmi nf one liurse, but en 11 m '.I,,; price of that of one strong wi.rkin; bailor!,-. The n.ilni.ri and necessary consequences fuMnw, in lliite l>v.i l. That ihe ,-xperieiice uf ilie British farmery. Ii,is- pruviil to them ihiit ihe, plnugb was superior lo the spaile hiiKhanibv, in oiiestaje of popnt'-ition, we have niit the siniilli'sl ildnbi ; and we can have jiist as little donhl, that if .llie piipulat'to-i of this coonlry. should conlinue 10 increase, 11 |i i fore the plough ran be,profitably given upon njore Ifvd, -�"iiiiKi, ailddiy lands. Whelhrr we hare yrl arrived ,-iI ibat pfiin.l of populaliuii when the , lny ihem, according to Lord CaStlereagh'.i plan, in digging hi.b-s and filling them up again-by neither of which modrs ihe-) would contribute, in any degree, to thejr own support. The Reviewers observe, " we would appeal lo his i''M.. Owen's) subei*-ti)inded cunsiileraiit>ii, whether the diviiliii,;r the country into districts or farms of a Ihunsjiid acres.e.irb, could improve the qilaliiy uf those iiiferinr soils, In nhuii we are obliged lo resort for the supply of fuoil." Tn n-hi'jii we most unequivocally reply', that a few years of spai/e labour would must certainly convert many of our int'i-iiur intw very good aiid )>roductive soils, while it cuutd scarrtly l*� applied tO any uf them, wiilioiit greatly impri.ving their qua. lity. But lb(? spirit in which the Reviewers have wiiiten, may begatiiered fiOm the following paragraph: *- We would enlreat him to explain in wh-,il way Ihe erection of villag.-�, in the form of parallelogram', could repeal those euici. ments against foreign trade, which are a disgrace to the .-ige we live in;" II has seldom fallen lo our lot to remark on a more flippant or a more misplaced sneer than this; is there any thing ridiculous in tha form chosen by Mr. Uwen for his projected villages? or has he had any part in enacting tbe statutes complained of?-Statutes, God knows! many of Ihem highly absijrd, and seriously injurious to the country, but most uf then) adopted at Ihe special instance and entreaty of our merchants and mauufactnrers. . " For ourselves, we do not despair of our country," say Ihe Reviewers; "and we have no objection lo siaie \i-!ni, in our opinion, would restore llie kingdom 10 its onee fltui-rishiog (roiidilioo. Give freedom to commerce, an^ tigbleii the pressure of taxation, aud we shall have 110 coniplaininii; ill our streets. As commerce is always an exrhaMgi- of eqiii-valeals, a nation that will not buy cannot sell, anil resirii--. lions upon import are prohibitory duties upon export ; on the contrary, the more we admit tbe productions of foreign countries, the more extensive become Iheir demand for onr commodities. Let the absurd system of our Cum Laas bp cautiously aud gradually abolished, and allow the cheap agricultural pi'od,HCc of the Noiih of Europe, and of Ibe Continents of America and Africa to be freely inlrodurert, and we shall obtain an nnlimiled vent for our manufactures ; the profits of stock will be restored lo their level in oihrr counlrtes, and the coiisci|ueiil accumulation of capital will cause the increasing demand fur labour to bear a nearer propoi-.^on to Ihe increasing supply of labourers." We ae, liltle (jespair of our country as the Reviewers possibly can do. We conceive tliere is refpiisite only a liltle coinmo-i sense, and a liltle common honesty, in cuiiilnding llie ail'aits of this mighty kingdom, in order 10 carry it lu a degree tf power and of prosperity which it has m-ver yet appronebcil. But, allboogh we consider A perfectly fr&e TJIABE, sccoinpaniid by its necessary aliemlanls, a total abol)lio.r, of Ihe Excise and Cusloms, wilh their numerous officers, -ai a necessaiy step towards its ultimate prosperity, yet we consider it as one which ought to follow, but by no means to precede, a total change in our syslein of taxation, Tho commercial peiiliun.s, which so nearly advocate the principle.s of the Edinburgh Kcview'eis as to make it not improbable that they origiuated wilh ihem, hold out as the grand pan.n. cea against all our evils-A free trade IS cotiN; but they would not disturb the existing duties, because they would not cripple the revenue. Yet we,011 the contrary, con �' ceive, that corn is the very last article to which this free trade ooghl to be extended; because the wages of labour, and Ihe profits of industry, are so heavily taxed in this country, that^. if our farmers had their lands free of reut, still they could by no means generally compete wilh the foreign corn, even in our own market; those only who occupied the superior qualities of land,could in sucb case continue Iheir cultivation; and' the inferior qualities,amouuting to perhaps half our territory, most lie relumed to grass. But what must be Ihe nnavoid-able consequence of onr coming to depend for a large pro-. , portion of onr subsist'ehce on foreigners? That the first year of general scarcity in those countries, from which've' commonly drew our most considerable supplies, would shot their exportation against us, and we most be subjerlfd ii> famine instead of scarcity. Tbi.s is not a casualty uohkf-ly lu happen ; seldom have iwemy years passed away wiiliuut producing more than one ieaaon of general scarriiy I'vei-Europe, which has not unfreqiieotly extended (O North America. Whence then are we lo draw our supplies ^ Fsoni-Africa, in i>s present slalCj is loo absurd a proposilion'" merit a single observation. But this is nut the ooly risk, we should run in adopting sucb an improvidejil sysiem ;. we have had recent experience that even " a Heaveo.Boni MiPisler" could not keep a small proportion of tti^ ports of Europe open to our-eoramerce,'aiid thai liis succ�*sut8 Wrra equally unsuccessful with regard lo those of America. Hn.i our Goverumrni attained lo so much wisdom, as uevyr ag^iii, to be exposed to folly ? ur has the Holy AUiaUce secured us agalbM a pds^iljility df recurrence io the' �'wor<iT_ The. amouol of onr standing army_woufcl not indicate ifi�n"-i� Be."' lief. We have hilhertd hot tuu nipch cujtiyaled fureign com-merce, which, thoirght �o�e(inie� a-rapid, has been alWays an uusiable road lo wealth; which has been tbe origin of most of bil/'wiTtfi^and Ibe principal cause of our present 0T�twhe1 i�|fdebt. Although.pallirtlVek maybejKhnlHis-lcred;lo nqr .present distress, ye|.wrfir.inly^heli�T<tt;,�iwrt Hf.i a?i;ious permanent improvement iu onr ,coiidijj.oii,^jli,ta <f. ^ fected, ulilil we procure a Legialaliire w|iose"iplv�^t�^ i^l

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