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Atlas Newspaper Archive: November 10, 1838 - Page 1

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Location: London, Middlesex

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   Atlas (Newspaper) - November 10, 1838, London, Middlesex                                0. (Btntxul MM^9^9tv antr gottvnal of WLittvatnvt* TRANSMISSION  OP  "THE  ATLAS'*  BY  POST  TO  FOREIGN  COUNTRIES. ffe are induced, by numerou* ajpplicaUmt on thi$ subject, to itate, for the information of our Subseribert, that " The Atlat" may be trantmitted free of pottage, through the General Pott Offices, to the folUmng places: AMTiaoA        Bbkbios      Bobnos Aybbs     Cbphalonia.     Dbmbbaka.      Oibbaltab Haububob       Jahaioa Bbbudda     Canada Colombia        DbNuabk       Obenada (Nbw)    Hbligolamd      Laqdiba CABAOOAa COBFD DOHIMIOA ObBBOB HONDOBAS MaLTA Baoota Bahamas Bbazilb Nbtis Newfoundland New Beunswiok Nova Scotia QUBBBC Sfain (via Cadis) St. Domingo St. Kitt's St. Luoia St. Vincent's toeauj tobtola Tbinida* Zantb Babbadois     Bbbubn      Cabthaobna       CnxHATBN       Fbanob Halifax Ionian Islbs    Montsbbbat "The Atlas" can alto be trantmitted, upon payment of one penny, to India-Cafb of Good Hora-Nbw South Wales.   To all other placet it may be forwarded upon the payment of two pence. No. 652. VotV XIILl SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 10, 3838. r  EARLY EDITION LIN TIME FOR POST. the atlas of this day contains: - FAOB , The ToUUcIan................ 705 But Indian md Colonial Aflai.706 Foreign Kewa ................ 707 BriUib News...................708 Heetingt....................708 Heland........................ 708 Scotland....................... 709 UwBeporta...................709 FoUc^ Oaicos.................. 709 Accidents and Oflbnces.......... 710 ' OBUiium.,'....-ii....;......if> 710 Theatrical litteUigencB.......... 711 Saturdai^'a News................ 711 W^jltotrospect pt tlie Money lH�dlng AiticiM**.'A'.'.'.!*.*.*.*.'.!'. 712 Bocledutical Intolerance........ 718 Memorandaon Men and Things. .f.713 Theatricals....................713 trrBBATDRI. Hemoiresd'an Touriste.........714 Lives of Eminent British SUtes< .   men. VoL VL [OUverCrom- well.] Bjr John Forster, Esq.r of the Inner Temple. Lardiier* EnCTclopsedla. YoL CVIH... 715 The Oiik; a Christmas and ifeW YearnsVresentfor 1839. Bdlted Miss Leslie......i....-^^ m* 716 Parallel Uaiiersal History jbdng an OntUne of the HUtorjr lUid Biography of the World. Dt� vldedintoFeHods............ 717 Music and Musicians.........: 717 Fine Arts............... 717 Literary and Sdentiflc Inititu< Uons........................719 l/niv6rsltyIntelligence.......... 717 The Army,............. ...... 717 GAMttes....................... 717 Births, Marriages, and Deaths .. 717 Banking and Monetary Atlas.... 718 Banking and Commercial Miscellanea...................... 719 The Markets...................719 Advertisements..............719 THE  POLITICIAN. scroll of a letter to the queen. on the punishment of death. Tait's MAQAzitiii-The Address of a few Respectable Women of the Middle ClttsSf to her Majesty Queen Vic-toria,onthe suJbjeidtof signing Warrants far the Execution of Cnmtna/�.r-Madain,---So we must address you, with distance and respect; but our hearts overflow with feelings which at this moment would rather prompt us to write as to a fiiend on whom we bestowed our deepest pity. Why do we pity, you proudly ask. Because ima< ^nation depicts you to us as signing a- death-warrant; and we shudder as we contemplate the image eTe#itt � ianoy. Yes, we are full oJEl compkssion for you-youfwho are but an instrument, a tool, bade to act by the barbarous laws of your country. We feel that to us it would be as awful to write the word which should command, the death of another, as to prepare to meet the King of Terrors ourselves. But your' ministers and the^ judges of the land, who stand around you, were you to express this our sentiment, would say, Ignorance, weakness, cowardice! It is for the good of society that the deatli of the guilty is commandea.'* Ay! but we know that this ignorance, this weakness, this cowardice, was the rule of life of Him who came down from Heaven to teach man his duty to man. Had He who possessed divine power possessed only human judgment, how woiild he have acted when . surrounded by the infuriated rabble of a degraded city? Baising that hand which could have called down instant death, be would have said-" There is a murderer, there a robber^ there an adulterer, there an incendiary-let each die!"  Or, using the coward plea of self-defence, which 'sociefy has justified, he would have said-"All these .hatem^ without cause: they thirst for my blood: they are murderers in desire; they force me to command their death, that I pierish not by their hands." But no ! He chose to die rather than be just as man is just; he said -" Father, forgive thein ! they know not what th ^er this example,has been eighteen centuri^ before oitr eyes, shall we continue to detu condemnatii^ii on those who know not what they do? How is life known to ybu but by its vanities, its splendours, its pleasures, its comforts, aftd by the simple feeling that it is dear to yoii P You know not that it would be deaorer yet, if the means of existence had been dealt out to jou day by day in a scanty pittance from the hard hand of a task-* master, until the soul of the^s until lausl^i^eii iJie pittance was refused, j^u wbiild have bcien tempted to commit crime to prdlon/that life. How mai^ l^nsands^!^ there J Do they, de- fipraded till reason is almost lost, do they know what they do P You know not how many thbusands of your creatures are educated, trained, step by step, in^^T^^ the cradle to the prison or the scaffold. To them virtue^ mid honour, and immortality, are nanies unknown :Ufe is the only good; and to grasp in any way aught that can give it vuue or prolong i^ is, to them, what is right. Do they, thus uninstructed, know what they do P You know not to how mimy thouisandsin this land the sacred Volume which contains the commands-" Thou shalt not steaJl; Thou shalt do no murder; Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour"-^is a sealed book. Nor do you know how many, in the close and noisome lanes of crowded cities, remain pent up, to conceal either vice or wretcjiedoiess; and never seek the house of God, where they might hear those commandments. Are t^iey,who break laws of which they are ignorant, guilty P Do they know what they do ? Think not that we would lead you by casuistry to the opinion, that all vice springs from ignorance, or want of right reason-that it should no more be punished than idiocy. Far from it. We know that the Just Ruler of this world has not left the vices of the ignorant unpunished, although a greater condemnation W pronounced on those wUo sin un^er the law; and^e know that those who aspire to rule societies must also huihbly aspire to follow His great laws of justice. Dread responsibility! Do they Understand those laws ? When they say. Punish! have they aisked why the Deity punishes? Have they looked mto the whole constitution of nature, which shews that the object of His punishment is to make better ? Have they looked into the intention of our holy religion, which says, Leave time for repentance, that it may work newiiess of life?" We ask not that the criminal should go unpunished; nor do we ask that he should be sent back to a society which taught him only evil. We say only to him who would condemn-Let thy brother live-ne knew not what he did; let him live, that he mav know; let him live, that he may offend no more; let him live, that he may deserve freedom; let him live, that he may taste the bitterness of repentance and the sweetness of hope; let him Uve, that he may teach others how great the wretchedness of vice, how great the mercy of God; let him live, that he may yet be happy, for life was given for hap;|^iness, and the vicious cannot have tasted it; let him live^ because humanity pleads for mercy; let him live, because Christianitjr commands it. Oh, may sentuueiits of piety and humanity become ;;^et more deeply fixed in yoUlr heart f-sentiments of chariW and pitjr for the poor, the wretched, the vicious, with whomj m the k^hdgdom of spirits, where distinctions and titles are unknown, you must stand before the Throne of Judgment! Our prayers in sincerity and truth are ever yours. DECLINE^ OF ARISTOCRACY IN FBANCE. Dublin Bkview-We are fully convinced that the existence of a landed oligarchy, or the accumulation of real Sopert^ into large estates, is not only advantageous to e agnculturaljiopulation, but also to the manufacturing communities; It is the principle of division of labour applied to the entire body of society; by which one portion attends soleljr to the cultivation of the soil, wliile another devote their complete attention to manufactures, a third to trade, and so forth. In this manner, each interest becomes consolidated^ and the different pursuits stand a better chance of being brought to perfection. Ancient prejudice, however, had given an imaginarv precedence to landed property over commercial wealth; and the sticklers for social equality determined, in consequence, to aim a decided blow at the formen They could not have devised a more effective stroke than the one already dealt b^ the equal division of real property; .The law of succession is the foundation-stone on which the principle of equality stands; the prominent feature in the social state of France. It is this law which.has annihilated the aristocracy, and established what is called the monarchy of the middle classes; a government which professed to destroy merely aristocratic abuiseSjr but which is, in reality, the conunencement Of a p^ Every change or conimotion tends towards this end; and although many statesmen (like Giiizot) have felt the necessity of checking this tendency, their individual efforts have had no avail against the Ovei^Whellining power of the lower orders. That power was acquired in consequence of the aristocracy forsaking the vessel of the state* instead of attempting to steer her on the course of reform: had they themselves begun the worki they might have conducted the proceedmgs with moderation, wid prevented the anarchy which was conseq^uient on their vpluntaiy flight. At the present moment^ a aristocracy, in the common acceptance of the word, does not exist in Finance: there is no liereditary peerage, no landed wealtb.: A House of Peers created for life by the crown, becomes a mere instrument of monarchieal power: an hereditary peerage, with the actusd jdiviisiifm^ property, would soon aegenerate into a body of paupers.: The materials to create an effective House of Loirds do not exist in France, or, as we shall ha\^ occasion often to repeat, there is no estate between tiie crown and the people. The struggle, whenever it takes place, must be between monarcl^ on the one hand, and democracy on the other: there ikno intermediate interest.; An aristocracy such as exists in England; closely connected with the welfare of the labouring classes, and. ranking in its; numbers the popular leaders; bound to the/sbil by their landed property, an|d intimate from their station with the usages of their country; acting as magistrates at home, and as legislators in London; alternately setting at defiance the encroachments of the crown, and braving^ ithe indignation of the mob; neither dependent oh coiirt figptrour, nor independent of the thousands who live oh their' estates; but loyal as well as brave, and as anxious to seek popularity as determined to resist any attacks upon their privileges: such an aristocracy does not, and never can, exist in France. Aristocratic vanity still lingers in the saloons of Paris: tiUes are not altogether without their adulators, and respect is paid to historical names; but the political influence of the old nobility is entirely destroyed, and the remnant of that fallen body fure idle spectators rather than participators in the passing scenes. The vacant place in society is not filled Up, but the hostility which was oujce directed against the nobles of the Faubourg, is now'evinced towards the purse-proud aristocrats of the finance. These, in their turn, have become the subjects of vituperation: for the spirit of democracy, like Shakspeare's Cassius^ is never at heart's ease while it beholds a greater than itself. the effect of solitary confinement on health. Monthly Law Magazine-We proceed to inquire into the boasted healthiness of the separate system. Numerous are the passages to be found m this report affirmative of the good health of prisoners subject to the separate system; but the voluminous nature of the report, and the repetition throughout of the same sentiments on this head as on others, compelis us, our space being limited, to refer generally to, rather than to quote particularly, the words which siiit this part of our subject. At pages 64 and 65 ample asseverations will be met with on the healthful results of the system. But two important facts tend to invalidate these assertions; first, the admission, at page 64, that "cases ot dementia occur every jrear"-the effects,. says the report apologetically, " of vicious conduct;" and, secondly, the application of figiilres to the ratio of mortaUty acUnitted gives such a fearful preponderance, in that respeet, against the Eastern Penitentiary, that every unprejudiced mind must perceive the mis-chievousness of Its system. Again, we^uote from the Twelfth Annual Beport of the Boston Prison Discipline Society, wherein, at page 134, we read thus i-^-" The average annual mortality in the New Penitentiary in Philadelphia, for seven years, is three per cent. The average annual mortality of the Auburn Prison (i.e, the associated system in America) for thirteen years,, has been less than two per cent.;" and, at page 136, a comparative table of mortality is given, in which the separate discipline of the Eastern Penitentiary is shewn to produce the excessive loss of one in thirty-three. When rivalry is observable in any undertaking or pursuit (and happily it is discernible in the exaction of prison discipline,) ah untoward exhibition of consequences may oftentimes be ascribed to the jealousy of conflicting opinions; but in this case no such imputation can be maintained; for at page 64 of the-Third Report, even under the boast of healthiness, the mortality of the pastyear at Philadelphia is acknowledged even to exceed tne estimate of the Boston Report; "the number oif deaths during the last year was seventeen, or four per cent, on the whole number cqn-fined;" andwe are credibly informed, upon the testimony of a foreign nobleman recently arrived from America, (Count Cetestini) whose object it has been to make practical inquiries into the subject, that, in the ensuing year, even that average (which Was taken up to the first January 1837) has been greatly exceeded. Our readers will the more readily estiittkte this fearful degree of mortality when we state that, in the prison at Cold Bath Fields, for the year ISST (see Annual Return to the Secretary of State,) with the commitment of 8^760 persons, and the daily average populationjof 976 inmates, (and, moreov be it observed, under the evil influence pf^a^ epidemic in tibe meti^poUs,); the detit^ is considered em) unusuaUy large nnm^^ that prison suffered in the ratio of the Eastern Penitentiary at Philadelphia, the mortality would have surpassed the number of 350 out of the whole ipf those Not- withstanding, howevier, this alarinittg xuOrt^ at p^e 6$, as follows :"r-"The: in(fftaK>y of wi?^^ P (the Eastern Pehitentiiary) during^ the piast year has been four per cent.; the average inortality$ihce' its commencement has been three per cent; TWs^^f^ withstanding the restraints to which the prisoners are necessaply siitijected, the beal^ prison will com- pare witia ihat of any otherin the whole country," in America. And to that country-if it shall choose to sanction and adopt this lingering process of extermination -we devoutly desire to confine it; and we unhesitatingly express our hones, as regards this land, that, if the misdeeds of the malefactor must indeed necessitate sacrifice of life as an expiation, the infliction of death shall be positive, and as speedy as the mercy of our laws will allow, rather than that, upon the pretence ofa defined imprisonment, he should, sink under a weight of privations and sufferings too poignant for humaii nature to sustain. It is due, however, in fairness to;^ this Report to say, that in the present proposition lor separate confinement, the boon of exercise is at length conceded; but it must not be forgotten that this mitigation of the plan, as originally propounded, has been extorted by the clamour of the opponents of t1;^e separate system. If, however^ the Eastern Penitential must be obtruded upon this country as a model, the oases of dementia(jan aggravated form of mental der^ngenieAtO and the excessive rate of mortality which ^ di%t^t)igfnisO^ that estabUshment, shoujid be held up asf beacgn'sCio warn U9^^g^ti the .adoptipn^^ of an &tal.mi�iperimentt   

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