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   Atlas (Newspaper) - October 27, 1838, London, Middlesex                                ^ General j^(b)�{$a|)eratn9 journal of S&tteratnve. TRANSMISSION  OF  "THE  ATLAS"  BY  POST  TO   FOREIGN  COUNT^IIES. We are induced, hy numeroui applications on thit iutject, to ttate, for the information of our Subscribers, that " The Atlas " maybe transmitted free of postage, through the General Post Offices, Baoota. Bahamas Babbado^s to the loUbvsing places: GiBBALTAH HAUBUBOH JAMAICA Gbenaoa (Nbw)    Heuqoland      Laouira Gbbboe Hondubas        Malta Halifax Ionian Isles    Montsebbat " Xlie Atlas" can also be transmitted, upon payment of one penny, to India-Cafb op Good Hofe-^Nbw South Wales. Bbbbicb Bbbmuda Bbazils Bbbhbn Bvbnos Atbbs Canada Cabaooas Gabthaobna Cefhalonia Columbia COBPU Cuxhaven Dbmbbaba Denmark Dominica Fbanob Nevis Newfoundland New Brunswick Nova Scotia Quebec Spain (via Cadiz) St. Domingo St. Kitt's St. Lucia St. Vincent's TOEi-... TOBTOLA Tbinidad Zantb To all other places it may be forwarded upon the payment of two pence. No. 650. VoL.XIII.] SATURDAY, OCTOBER 27, 1838. r  EARLY EDITION I IN TIME FOK POST. THE ATLAS OF THIS DAY CONTAINS:-  PAGE The ?oUticIan................6Z3 Salt Indian and Colonial Atlas.. 674 Indian Omniuin'................674 Foreign News................ 675 British News................... 675 Ireland........................675 Scotland........................675 The Colonial System Of New South Wales..;..............675 Jl/awBeportis................... 675 Police Oflices..................677 AceidentsandOffences.......... 677 Omnium.......................677 IMQscellJinea....................677 Theatrical Intelligence.......... 678 Saturday's News................ 678 Weeicly Betrospect of the Money Market......................679 Leading Articles..............679 Some .Thoughts on Drinking- Man is a Sponge............ 680 trheatricals....................680 IiITBRATUBB. The AmaTAnth; a Miscellany of Original   Pros^ and  Verse. Contributed by Distinguished Writers. . The Tourist in Portugal. (Jen- ning's Landscape Annual)..... 680 PAG Forget Me Not; a Christmas, New Year's, '. and Birthday Present, for 1839............. 681 A Wihter's Journey (Tatar) fifom Constantinople to Tehran \ with Travels through various Farts of Persia, fitc. By J. Baillie Fraser, Esq., Author of " A Tour hi the Himilaya Moun- : tains, &c. Grandeur de la Vie Privee. Par M. Hippblyte Fortoul.........682 Melton de Mowbray; or the  Banker's Son........... 683 Music and Musicians..........684 FtoeArts......................684 Literary and Scientific Institu� tions........................ 684 University Intelligence.......... 685 The Army......................685 Gazettes....................... 685 Births, Marriages, and Deaths ..685 Banking and Monetary Atlas.... 685 Agricultural   and   Commercial Bank of Ireland..............685 Banking and Commercial Miscellanea......................685 The Markets.............686 Advertisements.................687 T H E  P O L t T I C I A^K EFFECTS OF RAILWAYS-NOVEL PRISON DISCIPLINE, Times-It is impossible to observe the, changes produced by the .ppening pf the railways connected, with iLondoi). withovt feelmgs of considerable apprehension. The streets of the metropolis are already deprived of a considerable portion of meir traffic. The coach-offices, instead of displaying the busy activity by which they used to be distinguished, are now nearly deserted. An omnibus to a rulway station supplies the place of the gallant teams of high-bred horses which formerly were sfeen issuing forth at all hours of the day and night with well-appointed C9aches to all parts of the empire. Our ,adverti8mg columns daily exhibit the announcements of the sales of horses, in consequence of the opening of dif-feirent lines of railway. In the countr^r the alterations visible in, every direction are even more alarming^ The high roads are forsaken by nearly all the conveyances which have for years diflfused wealth and convenience throughout the districts in which they worked. The inns are deprived of their wonted custom, and are either shut up or about to be so. The post-horses are sold, or their numbers greatly reduced, and the various towns and villages not ipunediately contiguous, to ^a railway station are eiflier left without means of access or communication, or the circuitous route now, forced upon them occasions great delay and inconyeiiience.. It would be useless now to enter into a disciission OU' thct propriety of creating the monopoly which the directors of the different railroads have contrived to acquire. Time alone can show.whether it will operate beneficially for the; public or not. We entertain no'feelinghojstile to the establislinient of railways, but we contend, that however useful they may be as a means of communication between two distant points, or along a particular line^ they cannot, from their peculiar construction, and from the rules by which jthey must be ^governed, aSprd that varied accoinmodation which the general necessities of an extensive population require. To Eromote therefore the continuance of coaches and post-orses on the maiin roads^ it is necessary to relieve that mode of travelling from the taxation which has so long pressed heavily upon it. The revenue derived from post-horses has for some time p�st been considerably diminished by the conveyance of passengers in steam-boats, and the milieage duties on cpa^^es must how sustain a reduction still more extensive by the general adoption of railway travellihg. In fairness, both these duties ought to be wliplly repealed, as the act under whicK they are at Eresent levied confers on the conveyance of passengers y railw&y an undue preference. The stage-coaches and mails are charged with a duty of a penny per mile for every four passengers |hat they are licensed to carry. The duty must be paid, although the coach performs the whole journey without a passenger. The railway cai:-riages are liable to a duty of only a halfpenny per nxile for every four passengers actually conveyed by them. Thiis the stage coach, whether full or empty, is chargeable with a duly double in amount to that which is paid on the pftsserigers conveyed in a railway carriag^e. As regards posthorses, the loss to the revenue is still greater. Assessing the duty as above on four passengers, it appears that for every carriage.forwarded by railway that would have been conveyed by a pair of horses the loss is 2|d. per mile, and for those that would have travelled with four horses the loss is 5id. per mile. Under a taxation so unequal, it is scarcely possible that either coaches or post-horses can be maintained on the different roads now that the bulk of the traffic has been absorbed by the railways ; yet without their agency the communications through the country cannot be preserved. There is this farther and still more important point to be considered. There is no apparent mode of protecting the public from the insults and inconveniences they are daily experiencing from the railroad, monopolists-especially the persons employed on the Birmingham railway-but keeping coaches and posthorses on the road. This would be effected by the abolition of ,the posthorse and mileage duties} and we hope to see those duties removed immediately on the re-assembling of Parliament. We have seen a great many funny suggestions in the reports of the Prison Insipectors and in the writings and speeches of prison discipline-iiiongers, but the foUowing novel notion, which a ministerial paper gives as from a "Sussex paper," and, with the heamng "Improved Prison Discipline," does really appear to uS; to carry the joking and jobbing of prison discipline rather too far:- At the quarter sessions for the eastern division of Sussex, last week, a conversation took placei relative to a recommendation of the previous sessions, that every prisoner should be allowed to wear a linen mask, to be provided by the gaoler. Mr. Donovan opposed the plan, which he thojUght would take away from punishment one of its greatest stings, and throw over the proceeding an air of ridicule which would turn the whole into burlesque. Mr^ Hazlewood was in favour of the mask; for many a prisoner who had formed a determination to amend his life would, if not allowed to cover his fac^i be lialile to be recognized by some of his fellow-prisoners, in consequeniee of which his resolution of amendment would be rendered nug;ktory. Finally, it was agreed that application should be made to the Home Secretary, requesting that he would giant permission to use the linen mask in'the gaol.-Sussex Paper, A "linen mask!" Why not a fan, if only the delicate sensibility of criminals is to be consulted P A fan is the more fashionable screen of the two. If, however, the object is to substitute one criminal for another, or an innocent, but poor, man, who, for a consideration is willing to undergo the imprisonment .to which a rich criminal has been sentenced, then the linen mask hardly affords screen enough, and we recommend by all means the addition of B. domino. The figure as well as the face might possibly be recognized. Oh! if Lord John Russell had but thought of this linen mask when Miss Newman was tried! Indeed, there is no limit to the general gaol deliveries which the executive might make in favour of their friends and friends' friends, if this plan of the mask be adopted. Next to a Radical voting by ballot, a rogue being pu-nislbed in a mask is the most"' sublime suggestion of modem times.  Of course it Wiir^beada coroners* inquests. We take it for gratited that bli^eding or mutilated bodies will be well cpv^redpp^liieh ju them-when surgeons are called uppp to tell the cause of death, and witnesses are sworn as-tP identity. It is really astonishing how the intellect of these humanity-mongers marches. "^They do not transport xshildrien now: noj tney are too merciful: they only niak^-idiots of them by means of solitary confinement. Neithler'Mb they inflict capital punishment: no, they shudder at the thought; they merely substitute cruel and prptracjted torture for merciful and speedy death. Thus, the twb women who were convicted of infanticide at the last assizes are sentenced simply to five yearsV iinprisonlneirit, labour, thr
                            

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